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AP Human Geography-Urban Characteristics and Services
Ch. 12 and 13 in Rubenstein book
Terms in this set (47)
any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
businesses that provide services primarily to individual customers
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
the process of consolidating small farms/landholdings into a smaller number of large farms in England during the 19th century.
a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to go further.
market area (hinterland)
the area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
the minimum number of people needed to support a service
states that the optimal location is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
primate city rule
states that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the 2nd ranking settlement.
the largest city in a country following this distribution
export primarily to consumers who live outside of the settlement
enterprises whose customers live in the same community; essentially consumer services
a community's unique collection of basic industries
central business district (CBD)
the center of a city; downtown
an independent, self-governing community that included the settlement and the nearby countryside
an increase in the number of people living in urban settlements (by sheer number and percentage)
a central city and its contiguous suburbs
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
in the US, a central city of at least 50,000 in population, the county within the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of the several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
urbanized areas between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county within it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
concentric zone model (burgess' model)
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
sector model (hoyt's model)
a model of the internal structure of cities, in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD
multiple nuclei model (harris and ullman)
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around nodes of activity
an area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas these correctly correspond (roughly) to neighborhoods
an area within a city in an LDC in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
the subdivision of homes and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people
drawing lines on a map to identify an area in which a bank will not loan money
program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, residents, and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turning land over to private developers
housing owned by the government; in the US, it is rented to residents with low incomes and the rent is set at 30% of the families' income
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter occupied area to a predominantly middle class, owner occupied area.
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
the process of legally adding land area to a city
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
change in density in an urban area from center to periphery
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
laws that limit the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a country
rush hour (peak hour)
4 consecutive 15 minute periods of the heaviest traffic
council of government
cooperative agency consisting of representatives of the various local governments in the region
includes legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
ring of open space
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