Terms in this set (77)
One set of trials held for 24 individuals and 7 organizations accused of war crimes.
easing of Cold War tensions
The US would strategically resist any attempts by the USSR to expand its influence; would forge alliances with others and help weak nations resist Soviet advances
A plan that sent $12 billion over four years to mostly Britain France and Germany to spark economic revival in those countries; became most important achievement of containment policy by preventing Soviet advances into western Europe
US and 18 other American republics signed this to pledge to come to each other's aid
A campaign for transporting food and supplies by plane into West Berlin
Eisenhowers justification of the US presence in southeast Asia; belief that if south Vietnam "fell" to communists the nearby nations would soon fall just like dominoes
communist guerrillas in the south
Nixon's plan allowing for gradual increase of US troops pulled out and increased south Vietnamese combat role; as part of this, Nixon bombed North Vietnam bases and supply routes and bombed Vietcong hiding places in Laos and Cambodia
War Powers Act
limits and controls the war powers of each branch of government
military alliance between USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, east Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
competition between US and USSR to build more weapons
The first spacecraft to orbit the earth
soviet union would show superiority of the communist system through economic and political competition with the west instead of war
Cuban Missile Crisis
result of US plane seeing Soviet missiles in Cuba & JFK blockading the island
National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
gave federal aid to schools and colleges especially for projects improving math and science
National Science Foundation (NSF)
provide a grants for scientific research and curriculum development
economic restructuring/openness to new social and economic reforms
The secretary of state who developed the second step in containment for the economic recovery of Europe
Dwight D. Eisenhower
became President in 1953 and begin stockpiling nuclear weapons and strengthening the Air Force
Led the Chinese communist parties and established the People's Republic of China; plan=Great Leap Forward
leader of the Chinese nationalist party who was forced to flee to Taiwan
Ho Chi Minh
The leader of the communist government in north Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
The leader of South Vietnam who was a dictator & was assassinated by Vietcong who opposed him
told the Congress that north Vietnam had attacked the US ships in the golf of Tonkin so that he could send troops to Vietnam
when he became president began withdrawing troops and began Vietnamization
Cambodian communists trained by the Vietcong
The leader of the Khmer Rouge who took over Cambodia and enforced his brutal plan that resulted in massive genocide of the Cambodian population and executed Cambodia's is government officials, army officers, and teachers
became the most controversial senator in the nation because he claimed to have a list of state department employees who were members of the Communist Party
term used to describe sweeping accusations of betrayal based on little or no evidence
led revolution in Cuba to establish new government; harsh dictator-suspended elections, jailed/executed opponents
John F. Kennedy
commanded the attack on bay of pigs when he took office
Took over when someone died and advocated peaceful coexistence
continue moving away from detente by increasing defense spending
The new Soviet leader who announced glasnost and perestroika; goal was to make the economy more productive and efficient and he called for a new legislative body (Democratization)
urged Iranians to riot and forced the shah to flee Iran; hates the US; urged Muslims to overthrow their governments
what was the purpose of the meeting in San Francisco in April of 1945?
to develop a purpose, principles, and structure for the united nations
what is the United Nations? describe its two components.
and organization of nations dedicated to work for world peace and security and the betterment of humanity; parts = general assembly where representatives from member nations discuss any issues within the scope of the UN charter and each nation has one vote and Security Council where disputes are investigated and they can recommend solutions and take military action- 5 perm. & 10 temp.
what are the strengths of the United Nations?
membership to all nations; strongest nation in the world were involved
what are the weaknesses of the United Nations?
The General assembly had no power to enforce decisions; Security Council couldn't force decision but only one of the permanent members could veto the action; UN could invite countries to contribute military personnel but had no force of its own
what was the international military tribunal responsible for? Who established it?
established by the USSR, US, Britain, and France in order to bring all war criminals to swift and just punishment
why were the war crimes trials so controversial? Give an example
victors of the war prosecuted the defeated instead of examining the crimes with an impartial party; example: no one looked at the destruction of the US atomic bombs on the civilians of Japan
what are the differences between the US's and the USSR's governments that caused tensions to increase between the countries?
The US's government was founded on the principles of representative government and developed a competitive party system; USSR had a history of autocratic government
what are the differences between the US's and the USSR's economies that caused tensions to increase between the countries?
US was a free market economy that was prosperous; USSR had a strong government control and was technologically and economically underdeveloped
what are the differences between the US's and the USSR's interests that caused tensions to increase between the countries?
US was focused on expanding world trade and forming strong European markets to provide profitable markets for goods; USSR lacked warm water ports for commerce and wanted to keep Germany weak
what are the differences between the US's and the USSR's worldly approaches that caused tensions to increase between the countries?
US fought 20th century wars to "make world safe for democracy"; USSR had a fear of outsiders from centuries of invasions, had a desire to protect borders and focused inward
examine the ways the US and the USSR "grew" after world war two. What are some gains of each?
US grew economically while USSR grew territorially
* US's industries increase production because European nations destroyed each other's factories and businesses pushed into market and resource areas previously dominated by Europe, Latin America and the Middle East; USSR occupied eastern European countries as the red army pushed the Nazis back, and troops invaded Manchuria shortly before Japanese defeat
examine the ways the US and the USSR "grew" after world war two. What are some goals of each?
US grew economically while USSR grew territorially
* US push for free elections in previously occupied territories, needed strong and expanding world markets for its products in order to move smoothly to peacetime production, and national ideas promoted world wide spread of democracy and free market economy; Stahelin feared influence of ideas from non-Communist west wood we can his hold and wanted to surround USSR with "friendly" governments, wanted to rebuild economy through strict control and domination in close to sphere of influence, and national ideals promoted communist revolution
what was the origin of the cold war? What did the term mean?
term begins being used to describe the hostile relationship between the US and USSR
the war was fought mainly through political and economic means
how did Churchhill describe the cold war?
describe the growing division between eastern and western Europe as an iron curtain which symbolized I deal article conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe because the USSR tried to block itself from contact with the west and then Sophia areas
Who made up the "West"? The "east"?
West = the US, nations of Western Europe and nations opposed to Soviet expansion; East = Soviet union and allies
what was the containment policy of the United States? What were the two steps?
The US would strategically resist any attempts by the USSR to explain its influence; steps = Truman doctrine and Marshall plan
describe the Truman doctrine and why Truman came up with this plan
statement in which Truman believes that the US should support free countries to resist communism through economical and financial aid; sent $400 millon in aid to Greece & Turkey; came up with it because Britain told US they couldn't support Greek monarchy or Turkey versus attack from communists
what were the arguments between Congress and Truman over the Truman doctrine and the containment policy? Why did the argument by Congress change?
Congress argued that the US couldn't afford to aid Europe but their minds changed when Stalin took over Czechoslovakia
what were the North Atlantic Treaty and the North Atlantic Treaty organization?
North Atlantic Treaty = a treaty signed by the US with Canada and 10 other nations that stated that each nation would come to defense of any member nation; North Atlantic Treaty organization = the organization that administered the combined military forces formed by the North Atlantic treaty
what countries formed west Germany? Which countries formed east Germany?
West Germany = US, France, and Britain; East Germany = Soviet union
how was China divided in the 1930s (what was happening there?)? What did the US try to do to help?
was divided between the Nationalist party in the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s and after World War II fighting started again; US sent george and Marshall to attempt to negotiate peace between the parties and sent $3 million in aid to the Nationalist party
describe the government of China under Mao Zedong
strictly controlled schools and religious practices, economic production, and foreign policy, resorted to terror in order to enforce the reforms & establish authority, industries brought under government control, and the farmland was divided among peasants
why did the USSR refuse to participate in the security council after the communist took over the Chinese government?
they were protesting the admission of nationalist china into the security Council over Communist China
why did the Koreans issue a ceasefire to end the Korean war?
The UN troops regained control of South Korea after three years of fighting, and 4 million deaths had already resulted so the boundary line was set at that same place it was before the war
what were some negative effects of the Korean war?
much damage and death inflicted on the Koreans, relations damaged with China after US invaded North Korea and by providing naval production to Chiang Kai-shek on Taiwan, prolonged conflict in Vietnam due to the US support of French there, hostilities continued between US and USSR, US increased military and financial involvement in south east Asia, and US still keeps troops in South Korea due to North Korea's development of nuclear weapons under Kim Jong Il
why was Eisenhower hesitant to send troops to Vietnam?
for fear of a repeat Korea
describe the two problems for the US military in Vietnam
they were fighting a guerrilla war in unknown jungle and south Vietnam's government was becoming more unpopular (more support Vietcong) *
Ho Chi Minh, USSR & China sending supplies to Vietcong
why was Laos significant? What was happening there in regards to communism?
civil War broke out right after independence was gained between nationalist and communists, and the Ho Chi Minh trail wound through Laos and was bombed by US en route to stop the Vietcong supply
why was Cambodia significant? What was happening there in regards to communism?
Ho Chi Minh Trail ran through its eastern border, Vietcong troops established supply lines there so the US bombed them and sent troops into Cambodia, and Vietcong began arming and training the Khmer Rouge
what was SEATO and why was it established?
An Organization formed by the US with Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, great Britain and France to prevent communism from spreading it in southeast Asia
how did the US try to strengthen their position in Europe to stop the spread of communism? How did the USSR respond
US added Greece, Turkey, and west Germany to NATO; USSR responded with the Warsaw Pact
Who were Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg? Why did they help spread the fear of communist takeover?
Alger hiss = convicted of perjury in an investigation on his way to delivery of classified documents to the Soviets during the 30s; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg = arrested and convicted for giving information on the atomic bomb to the Soviets; Spread fear because people then did not know who was communist and who was loyal to the United States
Who won the space race? How
soviet someone when they launch sputnik one because it was the first spacecraft orbit Earth
what are the effects of sputnik one?
soviet policy of peaceful coexistence; Soviet split with China; increased spending on education and space program in the US, and increased speed of the space race
Who were the first two to walk on the moon? Who was the first person in space?
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin = first on moon; Yury A. Gagarin = first person in space
what are some of the effects of the arms race?
increased tensions between USSR and US, large increase in military spending causing economic drain years later, atomic age anxiety with possession of world destruction, each side avoiding open conflict for fear of nuclear destruction, and development of intercontinental ballistic missiles
describe the events in Iran during the 1950s
The shah was ousted but the US restored him to power, the shah tried westernize Iran and tried to weaken the ayatollahs' influences, so ayatollah Khomeini urged Iranians to riot and the shah fled Iran, then revolutionaries seized the US Embassy and took 60 Americans hostage for 444 days, and Ayatollah Khomeini urged Muslims to overthrow their govts so tensions rose between Iraq and Iran and a war started
identify why the Eisenhower doctrine was passed. When?
passed to authorize the US to give military and economic aid to middle eastern countries have a question help versus communism after Israel invaded Egypt when the Egyptians seized the Suez Canal
Who was the Cuban leader who established a new government? What was the US suspicious of when he came to power?
Fito Castro; suspicious that Castro's government was communist
explain the significance to the fall of the Berlin wall
Berlin wall = symbol of separation between communism and democracy in the cold war so the primary symbol of the Cold War was removed and it was the beginning of the end of the Cold War
what was the primary goal when the USSR invaded Afghanistan?
to combat a Muslim revolt they feared would happen so they could maintain the Communist government in Afghanistan