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What is evolution?
Gradual change of a species over time
What could happen to a species if it does not adapt to a changing environment?
- Move to another environment
Does an unstable, changing environment increase or decrease the rate of evolution? Why?
Increase- because they must adapt to the changes or risk extinction
New organ appear or increase in size in a species as a result of a need for them, organs nit needed decrease in size or strength as the result of disuse
Survival of the fittest
Those individuals that are better fit for the environment are more likely to live long enough to reproduce
Transmission of Traits
The survivors pass their traits on to offspring. Therefore, the organisms that die do not pass on the less desirable traits.
The offspring must struggle for survival
Most species produce more offspring than survive
The characteristics of individuals of a species are not exactly alike
Did Darwin know the source of the variations he noticed in a species? What are two sources of variation that Darwin did not know about?
-Sexual reproduction ; recombination of genes & crossing over
What does it mean to adapt?
To inherit characteristics that increases an organism's chance of survival
What did Darwin discover about the finches on the Galapagos Islands?
The finches had different shaped beaks based on the food that was available on their particular islands
What is adaptive radiation?
Process by which a single species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways
Formation of a new species
What is the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?
-Gradualism is a slower, continual process
- Punctuated equilibrium is a period of stability followed by a sudden change in the species
The study of structural similarities shows the evolutionary relationships between species
By stufying DNA & proteins, evolutionary relationships between species
Any trace or remains of an organism that has been preserved by natural processes
Analysis of the early stages of development in species; illustrates common ancestry
What are homologous structures? How could they prove evolution has occured?
Structures in different organisms that look similar but have different functions, showing common ancestry
What are vestigial structures? How could they prove evolution has occured
Remnants of structures that were functional in an ancestral form- usually serve little or no function. This shows ancestry of the organsim
Which layers of rock strata contain the oldest, most primitive fossils?
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, what were the first organisms like?
The first organisms were simple, single-celled heterotrophic organisms- probably bacteria
Which organisms would evolve at a faster rate: ones with a slow or fast reproductive rate? What types of organisms would be examples of organisms that can evolve at a fast rate?
Organisms that have a fast reproductive rate, like bacteria, should evolve at a faster rate
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