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Arts and Humanities
World War 1
Terms in this set (31)
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
Territory taken by Germany from France as a result of the Franco Prussian war. Was later returned to France as a result of German defeat in WWI.
Military supplies and raw materials needed to make military supplies
Submarines that used torpedoes during the "Modern War"
Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I.
The region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
The first Congresswoman,only person to vote against the war.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
These were men who refused to fight when drafted, usually because of a pacifist religion, such as the Quakers. Most of these men were still taken to the battlefield, but many were given non-fighting positions. They were widely hated throughout the army.
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
John J. Pershing
Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.
senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made to the League of Nations; led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
1918 Influenza Epidemic
-killed 30 million people worldwide
-555,000 Americans died
-army camps and cities hit hard by flu
-research lead to new vaccines and antibiotics
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco and Venzetti
Nicola Sacco was a shoe-factory worker and Bartholomew Vanzetti was a fish peddler. They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were zenophobic (afraid of foreigners).
Warren G. Harding
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI
Any bank or business that extends credit to others; a lender.
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