38 terms

AQA GCSE Changing Urban Environments edit

Changing Urban Environments case studies and key terms.
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Sustainable city
provides for the needs of people today whilst not overusing resources, damaging the environment and putting the needs of future generations at risk
Urbanisation
an increase in the percentage of people living in towns and cities
Rural-urban migration
when people move from the countryside to cities
Push factors examples
famine, natural disasters, war, lack of facilities, lack of jobs
Pull factors
better housing, more jobs, more schools and hospitals
CBD
city centre containing large department stores, shopping centres, restaurants and offices. Buildings are tall because of high land cost. Area is very accessible.
Inner city
Contains old factories and small, high-density terraced houses with no gardens. High rise flats were built in the 1960's.
Inner suburbs
consists of high streets, semi-detached housing with gardens, small shopping areas, schools and some open space.
Outer suburbs
consists of low-density detached housing with large gardens, garages, quiet roads, cul-de-sacs and crescents. Lots of open space for recreation
Rural-urban fringe
where the city meets the countryside
Brownfield sites
sites within the city that have already been built on before
Greenfield sites
sites that have not been built on before
City challenge
introduced in the 1990's in Hulme, Manchester. Local authorities and community worked together with private companies.
Congestion charge
Scheme in central London to discourage traffic from using the area.
Squatter settlement
area of low quality housing on the outskirts of cities in poorer countries as a result of rural-urban migration at a too fast pace
The informal sector
part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income ( e.g. shining shoes) but are not recognised in official figures
Green belt
areas of open countryside surrounding urban areas, protected from development in order to prevent urban sprawl
Incineration
Getting rid of waste by burning it on a large scale at selected sites
Self-help
Local authorities help squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering loans and installing water/sanitation, etc.
Site and service
Squatter land is divided into individual plots and basic infrastructure is laid out before residents begin building.
Landfill
A means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and lining it before filling it with rubbish.
Industrialisation
A process in which an increasing proportion of the population are employed in the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Recycling
collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminium cans or plastic containers instead of throwing them away.
Retail parks
Large warehouse-style shops often grouped together on the edge of a town or city, aiming to serve as many people as possible.
Curitiba facts
SE Brazil
5190 acres of parkland
1.8 million inhabitants
$375 expenditure/person
Master plan- Social
Orphans work in shops for board
'connective corridors' link 5 radial lines from the centre of the city
Specially marked bike and pedestrian lanes
Slum inhabitants work on recycling plants for food
Master plan- Economic
$200,000/km of bus line which is cheaper than subway
Bus ticket money goes towards maintenance
Fast travelling triple articulated buses which are cheaper than underground
Trinary road system going in and out with buses in between
Master plan- Environmental
1/5 city is park land and at least 500m from each house
Gardens tended to by local people and sheep
1.5 million trees planted along street sides
Abandoned dumps and wastelands turned into public parks
Master plan- Political
Low interest mortgage for people in slums
Ethnic groups fitted a park out according to their tastes
Orphan children included
Strong local core values in city plan
Transference of curitiba
Prioritising people over cars
Planning with local values at the core
Most design features serve more than one purpose
Three principles- mobility, sustainability, identity
Social issues in Kibera
Tribal tensions between Luo and Kikuya people
100,000 orpahns due to HIV
50% of 16-25 years olds are pregnant due to rape and lack of condoms so get black market abortions
Overcrowding: 8 people in 144 square feet
Economic issues in Kibera
20% electricity so far but unaffordable for most
Changaa is a cheap alcoholic brew which is high in methanol and can be sold on for 10 KES
No government provision of health services
50% unemployment
Environmental issues in Kibera
Young boys empty latrines into the river
Water collected for drinking from the Nairobi dam was affected by Typhoid and Cholera
No toilet facilities and one latrine is shared by 50 people
Response to Kibera
The World Bank and Kenyan Government have produced water pipes
Practical Action UK have developed low cost roofing tiles from sand and clay
AMREF- African charity fighting HIV, aids and abortions
Medicines Sans Frontieres encourage people to have free HIV and ARV medication
UN Habitat are providing electricity- street light, security lighting and connections for 900KES per shack
Kiberas 'The Promised Land'
770 families rehoused and involved in planning
Hope for less crime and more pride
Funded by the government, charities and small loans
Middle class people want cheap apartments so bribe officers
Residents miss the community of the slums so move back and rent out their apartment
Still high crime
Hulme problems and strategy
30 times more likely to be mugged or murdered in the Hulme Cresents
Unsuitable within 2 years due to design flaws
Dystopian enclave attracts crime
Cresents were demolished in 1994
Large community involvement and holistic approach
Hulme achievements
Received £37.5 million
3,000 new homes with shopping centres and community facilities
Crime greatly reduced and a bigger social mix
A new Zion community centre and ASDA was built
Hulme problems new challenges
Not sustainable for the future environmentally
Affordability for the poorest people
Long lasting and vibrant communities

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