Allegiance to the "old way" of the theology of the high Middle Ages (Thomism, Duns Scotis).
Allegiance to the "new way" of the theology of the late middle ages (William of Ockham).
William of Ockham
tried to discredit Thomism pg 293
Scottish theologian who was very influential in the Middle Ages; via antiqua, supporter of Thomism (1265-1308) pg 293
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.Dying out in western europe by 1500
father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization., "Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular; Black Death
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400), He presented images of contemporary society with a critical and often ironic view. His work is much more sophisticated and wide-ranging, weaving together the whole spectrum of late medieval literature and life. He was a successful courtier which gave him opportunities to travel. His mastery of the whole heritage of the medieval culture and his independent use of that heritage has proven himself to be the greatest English writer before Shakespeare.
Christine de Pizan
educated Italian women, smarter than men of her time, spoke French, Italian, and maybe Latin. became a writer to support her 3 children. wrote The City of Ladies which examined men's negative views of women, etc.
Late Gothic Architecture
Late Gothic Paintings
Late Gothic Sculpture
Rise of New Trends
beautiful books made by monks who copied important religious writings by hand; Tres' Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Very Rich Hours
Tres Riches Heures
Very Rich Hours
Florentine; first to make figures come alive and paint nature, Works: did the bellfry tower at Cathedral of Florence, Marriage of St. Francis to Poverty, Glorification of St. Francis; Madonna Enthroned pg 308
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who with his brother Hubert (died 1426) founded the Flemish school of painting. Jan's works, characterized by brilliant coloring and minute realistic detail, include Arnolfini and His Wife (1434). No existing works can be positively attributed to Hubert. Van Eyck painted altarpiece for cathedral of Ghent, Belgium, 20 panels. pg 312
Virgin with Saints and Angels, Saint John Altarpiece(Belgium, 1479) pg 315
Fall of Constantinople
to Ottoman turks, end of Byzantine empire, modern research see slide , led to the migration of scholars, encouraged the study of Greek during the Renaissance & made Italy the new center of Christian power; the Turks took over Constantinople - led to a large amount of Christians fleeing Constantinople
Late Middle Age Music
1300; Secular songs set to polyphony; France and Italy were the 2 leading areas at this time; Notre Dame composer after Leonin and Perolin; pg 317
The Great schism
two popes were chosen; divided Europe; damaged church - people didn't know who to worship; ended with election of one new pope; slide explorer
pg 290 slide explorer
The council of Constance
Their first step: the pope convinces each other to resign, 3 popes- one resigns, one without followers and one reduced to the rank of 'cardinal bishop' and gets rid of three popes and come out with one. Their second step: demands huss to come to constance to defend his teachings and will be able to leave safely but he is lied to and they burnt him at the stake declaring him a heretic, they burn wycliffe after he is dead too. pg 290
A technique that requires the artist to scratch the metal plate with a needle that causes a clean, sharp line, unlike engraving
light: a condition of spiritual awareness; divine illumination
art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
Book by Boccaccio----------Setting in the Black Plague, Characters told the story on Mountain top,, Poked fun at society and medieval mindset---OUT OF DATE_-Glorified modern renaissance ways of life, pressed its acceptance.
Italian poet (born in France) (1313-1375)
Type in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters and other characters on a page. Invented in Korea 13th Century. (293)