Scripture and Its Interpretation ch 10: Modern and Postmodern Methods of Biblical Interpretation

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African American criticism (or hermeneutics)
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Terms in this set (62)
An interpretive approach that (a) highlights the presence of Africa and Africans in the Bible, (b) resists racist and oppressive interpretations, (c) stresses themes such as exodus and liberation, and (d) draws on traditional and contemporary African American resources in interpretation for the preservation and progress of African American churches and communities.
Interpretive approaches that view the text as a window through which to access and examine a deposit of meaning, which is thought to be located in the history assumed by the text, that gave rise to the text, or to which the text gives witness; often in contrast to in-the-text approaches and in-front-of-the-text approaches.
Documentary HypothesisThe theory, first espoused by Julius Wellhausen, advocating that the Pentateuch was composed of four distinct, independently written sources.dogmatic theologyFormal reflection on and coherent presentation of Christian beliefs, especially as expressed in creeds and by theologians through the centuries; also known as "systematic theology"; sometimes used in contrast to biblical theology.EAbbreviation for the Elohist source, named for its use of the Hebrew word Elohim for God, and understood by proponents of the Documentary Hypothesis as one of the four written sources of the Pentateuch, dating from the mid-800s BCE in the northern kingdom of Israel.ecclesialFrom the Greek word for assembly, gathering, or community, ekklēsia; of or related to the church and its confessions, interpretive traditions, and liturgical (worship) life.the EnlightenmentThe period of European intellectual history (also known as "The Age of Reason") in the late seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, when human reason was cultivated and applied to traditional teachings, including religious claims, texts, and authoritative teaching.exegesisThe act of "leading out" of the text a meaning based on the careful literary, historical, and/or theological analysis and interpretation of a text; in contrast to eisegesis ("reading into"), though it is generally recognized that no interpretation is without bias.Farrer HypothesisA theory about the Synoptic Gospels advocated by Austin Farrer (1904-1968) and championed today by Mark Goodacre, according to which Mark was the first Gospel, Matthew used Mark, and then Luke used both Mark and Matthew, thus eliminating the need for the Q hypothesis.feminist criticismInterpretive strategies that include (a) conducting historical and literary investigations into the portrayal of women and other marginalized groups in biblical texts as well as (b) bringing contemporary concerns of and about women and other marginalized groups into the practice of biblical interpretation.form criticismThe method of analysis that (a) classifies units of the biblical text according to literary patterns, or forms, and then (b) seeks to identify the relationship between the forms of those units and their functions in the sociohistorical settings of the communities in which they were orally transmitted.Four Document HypothesisA theory about the origins of the Synoptic Gospels according to which Mark's Gospel was written first and the authors of Matthew and Luke each used two main sources, Mark and Q (variously understood as written and/or oral material), to which each added unique material, labeled M (Matthew's special written and/or oral material) and L (Luke's special written and/or oral material).genreLiterary type, form, or classification (e.g., historical narrative, collection of prophetic oracles, letter, apocalypse).Griesbach HypothesisA theory about the origin of the Synoptic Gospels proposed by Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745-1812), who thought that the first NT Gospel was Matthew, that Luke made use of Matthew, and that Mark used both Luke and Matthew; advocated more recently by William Farmerhistorical-critical methodThe modern approach to biblical texts, birthed in the Enlightenment and eschewing any reference to God or faith, that uses certain historical criteria to attempt to (a) trace a text's historical origins and development and (b) discern its original meaning; sometimes used interchangeably with biblical criticism and historical criticism.historical criticismThe method by which historians draw on whatever ancient sources are available to them in order to reconstruct past events for the purpose of narrating the story of the past; the interpretive practice of making judgments about texts on the basis of their historical setting and the meanings possible in that setting; sometimes used interchangeably with historical-critical approachesInterpretive approaches that focus on (a) the perspectives of various readers and communities of interpretation and (b) the effects that texts have on their readers as they bring their interests and questions to the text and actively produce textual meaning.intercultural criticismAn interpretive approach that stresses (a) the distinctive context and questions of the reader/interpreter and (b) his or her interaction with interpreters from other cultural approachesInterpretive methods that focus on the qualities of the text itself (e.g., structure, narrative elements) and locate meaning therein.JAbbreviation for the Yahwist (German "Jahwist") source, named for its use of the Hebrew word YHWH for God, and understood by proponents of the Documentary Hypothesis to be one of the four written sources of the Pentateuch, originating in the southern kingdom of Judah in the mid-900s BCE.Latino/Latina criticismAn interpretive approach that foregrounds the Latino/a American experience, recognizing both the hybridity and the diversity of that experience for the many national, ethnic, and language groups from Latin America and the Caribbean.literary criticismThe analysis of a text with respect to its literary aspects, including characterization, plot, and so forth.Markan priorityThe view, held by most NT scholars, that Mark was the first canonical Gospel written.missio DeiLatin for "the mission of God."missional hermeneuticsAn interpretive approach that emphasizes engaging Scripture to discern and participate in the missio Dei.modernismA general term for the cultural and philosophical aftermath of the Enlightenment in Western culture, in which human reason, the pursuit of objectivity, and the notion of universal values were elevated above the values of the premodern era, including the role of faith.narrative criticismAn interpretive approach that focuses directly on the biblical texts themselves, which may include attention to both (a) the various literary elements of biblical narratives (e.g., sequence, characterization) and (b) the rhetorical power of stories to draw readers into their plots.oral traditionStories and other significant aspects of religious or cultural heritage passed on orally instead of, or prior to, being written down.PThe Priestly source for, or material in, the Pentateuch, probably reflecting a postexilic period and attentive to matters such as liturgy, ritual, and sacrifice.patristicFrom Latin pater, "father"; of or related to the writings of the church fathers, theological writers from the end of the first or early second century CE until about the middle of the eighth century CE.Pentateuch"Five scrolls"; the first five books of the Bible (Genesis-Deuteronomy), also referred to as Torah.pentecostal hermeneuticsAn interpretive approach that emphasizes the interrelationship of the church, Scripture, and the Holy Spirit, with emphasis on continuity between God's activity attested in Scripture and God's activity today.pericopeA small unit of the biblical text, especially in a historical narrative, particularly in a NT Gospel.postcolonial criticismAn interpretive approach that attempts (a) to expose and critique colonialism and power structures more generally, as well as (b) to identify and critique the use of the Bible to support or challenge imperial power and other forms of abusive power.postmodernismThe cultural and philosophical reaction to modernism, with its claims of objectivity, universal values, and "metanarratives," that stresses both the impossibility of value-free judgments and the participatory processes in knowing and making meaning.QOften understood as an abbreviation for the German word Quelle, "source," and used to designate a hypothetical written source of sayings of Jesus common to Matthew and Luke but absent from Mark.reader-response criticismAn in-front-of-the text approach to interpretation that focuses on the text's real or anticipated impact on readers.redaction criticismAn interpretive method that focuses on (a) the redacting, or editing, of earlier sources for the preparation of a new text and (b) the literary and theological contributions of the redactor(s) and of the resulting text.redactorIn the process of producing biblical texts, someone who edited or adapted an existing source.rhetorical criticismThe analysis of rhetorical forms and strategies in biblical texts, and of the ways texts exercise power and persuade audiences.senses of ScriptureThe levels or aspects of meaning in a biblical text first posited by early Christian writers and incorporated into an interpretive approach called fourfold exegesis: (1) the historical (or literal) sense; (2) the tropological (or moral) sense; (3) the spiritual or allegorical (doctrinal) sense; and (4) the anagogical sense (referring to mysteries seen by theōria [spiritual vision], or to the afterlife).Sitz im LebenGerman for "setting in life," a technical term used especially in form criticism to refer to the social and religious context in which a literary type (e.g., miracle story) took shape and was memoryThe shared knowledge and memories of a social (or social-scientific) criticismThe application of methods of social history and analysis to the study of biblical texts and the communities that produced and received them, including both (a) social description and (b) interpretation based on other cultures or on theoretical models.source criticismThe identification and analysis of possible written or oral sources upon which a biblical text is based.synopsisFrom Greek meaning "seeing together" or "seen together"; a document that places narratives, such as those found in the Gospel accounts, in parallel with one another.Synoptic GospelsAlso called the "Synoptics," the three canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) that share a similar or common perspective on Jesus' life and teaching (synoptic: "seeing together" or "seen together").Synoptic ProblemThe scholarly conundrum of accounting for the similarities and differences among the Synoptic Gospels, including which Gospel was written first and how the Gospels and their supposed sources are interrelated.systematic theologyThe careful interpretation, articulation, and organization of Christian doctrines, sometimes known as dogmatic theology.theological interpretationThe interpretive approach that emphasizes (a) the interpreters' ecclesial location; (b) commitment to the church's confessions, traditions, and liturgical life; and (c) the prioritizing of theological concerns over other concerns—all with the goal of enhancing faithful living and worshiping before God by bringing theological concerns to bear on scriptural interpretation, and vice versa.tradition criticismAnalysis of the process by which historical events came to be recounted, shaped into oral and written traditions, and included in the Bible's historical narratives.Two Document HypothesisA theory about the origin of the Synoptic Gospels according to which Mark's Gospel was written first and the authors of Matthew and Luke each used and adapted two main sources, Mark and Q, but also knew and used other oral traditions.womanist criticismAn expression of feminist and African American theology and engagement with the Bible that includes a wide range of interpretive practices in the service of concerns for the flourishing of African American women, their communities, and other oppressed communities.hermeneuticA general interpretive philosophy, theory, approach, or strategy; hermeneutics: the art and principles of interpretation.