PSM Questions from PSM Exam Guide
Terms in this set (45)
What factors will increase complexity? Select all that apply
1) Larger # of project people
2) Longer duration of the project
3) Batching of product release into one big bang
Answer: All the above
What is the cone of uncertainty?
In complex adaptive problems, the amount of the unknown is really huge in the initial stages and will likely trend down over the course of the product development.
The trend is called the cone of uncertainty.
What is the Critical Path Method (CPM)?
A way that planners calculate the duration of the project during the initial stages by inputting such assumptions on things like product definition, people productivity, etc.
What is Empiricism based on?
Based on the concept that complex problems are hard to predict. Applies an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk.
Empiricism advocates observation rather than prediction to navigate complex adaptive problems.
Select the best answer. Scrum is a newer way of doing things to address complex problems. It is a new way because
a) It offers new terminology for traditional practice
b) It is easier to master than the traditional way
c) It increases the opportunity to control risk and optimize the predictability of progress
d) It is closely associated with emerging technologies
Scrum brings in new terminology, but it is not the primary difference. It is easy to learn, but difficult to master. There is incidental association of a lot of emerging technologies executed in Scrum, but that is not the reason for its identity as a new way.
Scrum does not guarantee success, but it increases the likelihood of success by controlling the risk and optimizing predictability.
Scrum framework consists of:
a) Scrum Standards
b) Scrum Teams
c) Product Development Processes
d) Roles, events, artifacts, and rules associated with Scrum Teams
Scrum framework consists of Scrum Teams and their associated roles, events, artifacts, and rules. Though there are standards such as definition of "Done", they are not formally called as Scrum Standard. Correct answers are 'b' and 'd'.
How is progress measured in Scrum? What are the key performance indicators (KPI)?
Answer: Only the Increment is a measure of progress in Scrum.
In Scrum, Team Velocity (Rate of Completion) is a good metric to track the progress of product development.
Answer: No. This is only an internal metric used by the team to manager their work. It is not an indicator of progress for stakeholders.
Is the Scrum Master only a teaching role?
Answer: No, they are not just teachers or coaches, they are responsible for many other activities that are instrumental in transforming teams into value creators. An example of a critical activity the play is when the Scrum Team runs into issues that prevent it from achieving their goal and if these issues are outside of the team's influence, the Scrum Master owns these impediments and resolves them. They also help the organization to adopt Scrum, set the goals to improve the way of working in Scrum, etc.
What are the 5 values of Scrum?
What is a ScrumBut?
An adjustment or modification made to Scrum, so that the organization can hide the problem instead of addressing it.
Ex.) "We use Scrum, but we cannot build a piece of functionality in a month, so our Sprints are 6 weeks long."
Select all that apply. In Scrum, the technical design of the solution is:
a) Built one module after another with the Architect's guidance
b) Initially created as a common architectural pattern by selected designers and architects and shared with other to build on top of it
c) Started with just enough design which emerges throughout the Sprints
d) Provided focused attention through core design hours in the Sprint
Answers: C &D
Which of the following statement is not correct?
a) Only the people who perform the work can finalize the estimate of Product Backlog items
b) The Product Owner always orders the Product Backlog Items based solely on the value of each individual item compared to another item
c) Mult. Dev. Teams working for the same product should have one common Product Backlog
d) The Dev. Team finalized all estimates
Because the P.O. strives to maximize the collective value of the Product and the Dev. Team's work To achieve that, they can follow any appropriate logic for ordering. It does not always need to be the individ. business value.
What is the logic behind which parameter is chosen to order the Product Backlog?
A) Individual Product Backlog Item's value
B) Whatever increases the overall value of team's work
C) Whatever is deemed appropriate by the P.O.
Choose the best choice:
A) Individual Product Backlog Item's value
B) Whatever increases the overall value of team's work
C) Priority of senior management
Not a direct answer, but the best choice of all 3.
What are some examples of Product Backlog management techniques where a Scrum Master can coach the P.O. and the Dev. Team:
a) Creating a common standard that defines the preferred level of description and transparency each Product Backlog Item should meet before introducing them in Sprint Planning. The Team can then use this standard as a guideline to decompose the Items.
b) In addition to using value, a P.O. can choose input from the Dev. Team on ordering the items based on their technical coherence.
c) Choosing a tool to manage the Product Backlog.
d) Techniques like writing the items in the form of user stories and their Acceptance Tests.
Answer: 'a', 'b', and 'd'
A Scrum Master coaches the Dev. Team and the P.O. about managing the Product Backlog to facilitate empiricism-based product planning and arranging the items so that the order can maximize overall value.
A Dev. Team has technical specialists in addition to Developers. They perform their work when the Sprint Backlog needs their special skills, but they are idle others:
A) Continue to have the specialist deliver fully-integrated Increments. Gradually facilitate the team to organize their work to fully leverage these special skills. If required, they can enhance everyone's domain of expertise, so that everyone is productive as a team without idle time.
B) Let the PM coordinate their staffing needs and plan partial allocations to avoid idle time
C) Defer and accumulate the special work to later Sprints until it needs full-time specialists. Add them to the team for that time frame alone. Prior to that, deliver the Increment with subbing.
In the middle of the Sprint, a Dev. Team finds that they have more room for additional work. They decide to change the Sprint Backlog by adding a few more Backlog Items from the Product Backlog. Who should be present to decide the additional work and accordingly modify the Sprint Backlog?
A) Senior members of the Dev. Team
B) Scrum Master
C) Dev. Team
E) Scrum Team
Only the Dev. Team can make changes to the Sprint Backlog and it is the P.O.'s job to optimize the value of their work and they are needed to explain the content of the Product Backlog and give mutual consent on the next work.
In a Scrum Team, only the P.O. communicates with the stakeholders. There is no exception to this rule.
The Scrum Master can work with stakeholders to make them understand Scrum and the entire team collaborates with them during Sprint Reviews.
In the first few Sprints, the Dev. Team is expected to focus on
A) Setting up the basic infrastructure needed for subsequent Sprint work
B) Reviewing and base-lining the project plan so the changes can be controlled
C) Iteratively refining the requirements and obtaining sign-off from the P.O.
D) Delivering a usable and potentially releasable produce Increment
E) All of the above
The Dev. Team must try to deliver at least one piece of functionality NOT Only in the first few Sprints but in every single Sprint.
Should the entire Sprint work be decomposed within Sprint Planning?
Not necessary. Work planned for the first few days of the Sprint by the Dev. Team is decomposed by the end of this meeting, often to units of one day or less. Dev. Team members collaboratively assign these work units among themselves.
In the Sprint Review, the presentation of the product Increment to stakeholders is
A) To get the Sprint completion sign-off
B) To provide the status of the project
C) To elicit feedback
The Sprint Review is an informal meeting, not a status meeting, and the presentation of the Increment is intended to elicit feedback and foster collaboration.
The difference between the Product Burn-down Chart and the Sprint Burn-down Chart is
A) In the product, the number of product backlog items is shown on the y-axis. In the sprint, the number of task is shown on the y-axis.
B) In the product, the sprints are shown on the x-axis. In the sprint, the days of the sprint are shown on the x-axis.
C) In the product, the sprints are shown on the y-axis. In the sprint, the days are shown on the y-axis.
For both the product burn-down and the sprint burn-down, the y-axis always represents the work remaining.
The Sprint Review is an event that requires
A) The Product Owner's sign-off
B) Stakeholder active participation
C) Transition sign-off
D) Inspection and adaptation activities
What is inspected in the Sprint Retro and potentially adapted in the next Sprint?
A) Sprint Improvement Plan
B) Scrum Team
C) Sprint Backlog
What should be the frequency of Inspection in Scrum? Choose all that apply.
A) As planned in Sprint Planning
B) As needed by the Product Owner
C) In every event within the Sprint
D) Frequently, as decided by the team, but not getting in any way of work
Answers: C & D
Every event is an opportunity for inspection. In addition, a team can optionally inspect more frequently without having the inspections getting in the way of the work.
All activities within Scrum are called Scrum events.
True or False
There are only five defined events in Scrum and there can be any number of activities within the Scrum Framework chosen by the team (Work Practice, Backlog Refinement, etc.)
A good guideline to differentiate Acceptance Criteria from the definition of "Done" is "the definition of "Done"" provides a checklist to take the Increment to a potentially shippable state, while the Acceptance Criteria focuses on testing the business requirements.
True or False
The definition of "Done" is a standard to define the quality for the production release.
Acceptance Criteria are the specifications of the expected business behavior.
After a Sprint Review, the P.O. deems the Product has come to the end of its life and the Product Backlog can be closed. The next immediate step is:
A) Communicate the Scrum Team's availability to stakeholders
B) To conduct a Retrospective
C) To write transition documentation
Usually, the Retro is the last event of the Sprint. However, when the P.O. decides that the development work is over, there is no need for a Retro. The transition documentation is defined a part of the definition of "Done" if that transition documentation is a req. for the Increment's release.
A discussion of what to do next is an additional even in the Sprint Review.
B) True, and the scope of the next Sprint is also finalized here
C) True, and it may capture probable Backlog Items for the next Sprint, but the scope of the next Sprint is deferred until Sprint Planning
Every Scrum event is an opportunity for inspection and adaptation. In the Sprint Review, inspecting the product Increment provides insights and clarity. This newly found knowledge is used to 'adapt the next steps,' i.e., find out what to do next.
A Dev. Team maintains a Sprint burn-down to track estimated remaining work. In the middle of the Sprint, the burn down graph shows and upward spike. This indicates
A) A planned work is removed
B) The Product Owner added a new item to the Sprint
C) The Dev. Team added new work
A spike indicates added work. The P.O. cannot add new work without the Dev. Team's consent.
Select all that apply. For a Scrum Team, the Sprint Planning meetings are always going beyond the time-boxing. What could be the likely causes?
A) The Scrum Master does not moderate and control the participants
B) The Team didn't invest enough in Backlog Refinement
C) The Product Backlog size is huge
D) The Dev. Team is trying to get a perfect and detailed Sprint plan.
In which event are the cost and the number of Sprints decided?
Parameters like release date, cost, etc. are reviewed in the Sprint Review. However, Scrum leaves it open about their first definition. Unless otherwise inferred through the question, it is safe to assume that they are defined at the time when Just Enough Backlog is defined before the first Sprint.
In the middle of a Sprint, a Dev. Team identifies a defect. Initially, they were not sure about the cause of the defect, and hence they involved the P.O. to discuss. After discussing, both the P.O. and the Dev. Team agreed that the defect is indeed a clear gap in the feature being developed in their Sprint and not a new requirement. The defect should be
A) Deferred to the Product Backlog since it is a new req.
B) Deferred since this is not a critical defect
C) Fixed in the current Sprint.
The defect is from the work performed in the current Sprint.
Hundreds of developers are identified for a Scrum work. Which two of the following may be appropriate considerations to form these developers into teams?
A) Each team must have a required number of technical leads
B) Each team must be sized to reduce external dependencies with less internal communication issues
C) Each team must be a business feature team
D) The team formation should seek input from the business side
E) Each team must be a technical component team
Answer: B & D
To deliver a single product, three different Dev. Teams are formed. How many Product Owners are needed?
A) As many as recommended by Scrum Master
A single product should have a single Product Backlog and hence the only one owner, a Product Owner. A P.O. can delegate some of his responsibilities to the team, however they are still accountable for Product Backlog ownership.
Duration (length) of Sprint is decided by
a) Product Owner
b) Scrum Master
c) Scrum Team
During Daily Scrum, this plan is used as reference to understand the changes in progress
a) Sprint Backlog
b) Product Backlog
c) Sprint Burn-down
Select all that apply. Empiricism provides...
a) frequent opportunities to get info using which uncertainty can be completely eliminated
b) frequent opportunities to discuss different possibilities
c) frequent opportunities to make informed decisions, reducing risk
In the middle of the Sprint, a team member was required by another dept. manager to support an important task outside the Sprint work. What is recommended for the team member to do?
A) the team member must support since it is an important task
B) The team member should ask the manager to speak with the Scrum Master
C) The team member should politely decline and explain to the manager about his ownership and accountability for the Scrum Team
If any external authority brings different work, the team should explain about how they self-organize their work in Scrum way. After that, the team can refer them to speak with the Product Owner if the external authority still wants to add this new work.
When more Scrum Teams are added to a project that works on one single product, the productivity of the original Scrum Teams most likely will increase
Each Scrum Team needs to mutually define their definition of done so their work will be potentially releasable. That involves some overhead work in syncing up, and hence the impact to productivity.
During the Daily Scrum, a team member says he does not know when his task will be complete
a) it is acceptable as sprint review date is far away
b) replace the team member with new team member
c) dev. team should collaborate to plan alternative steps such as pairing with someone else, etc. to eliminate the risk of not meeting the Sprint Goal
d) Scrum Master should mentor the team member on how to est. the task
You are in a Scrum Team that is in the middle of the Sprint. Your team gets some additional team members. The likely results is:
a) the team can take more stories on the top of originally sprint backlog
b) the team will have to do sprint planning again and get buy-in from new members of the new planning
c) the team may suffer in its productivity
The productivity will not increase bc there will be a learning curve for new members. the sprint cannot be aborted to go back to sprint planning. the sprint can only be cancelled by the p.o. upon their inference that the sprint goal is not valid anymore.
A scrum team needs to develop a web application in increments. Some of the sprints have sprint goals like this: 'Develop data layer for functionality a'. What is your inference?
a) the scrum team follows horizontal decomposition of product backlog items. this is recommended.
b) the scrum team follows vertical decomposition of product backlog items. this is recommended.
c) the scrum team follows horizontal decomposition of product backlog items. this is not recommended.
d) the scrum team follows vertical decomposition of product backlog items. this is not recommended.
It is preferable to decompose the product backlog items such that each can produce usable business functionality instead of producing a technical component. such decomposition based on usable business functionality is also called as vertical decomposition. A horizontal decomposition on the other hand makes the team as technical component that will have external dependencies.
Which of the following statements are true? Select all that apply
a) after sprint planning, a sprint cannot proceed without complete requirement specification
b) after sprint planning, a sprint cannot proceed without a sprint goal
c) after sprint planning, a sprint cannot without complete sprint backlog
d) after sprint planning, a sprint cannot complete architecture
Answers: B & C
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