7th Grade Final Exam Review

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Terms in this set (...)

organ system
a group of organs that work together
muscular system
system that allows movement of body parts
skeletal system
system that supports the body, protects important organs, and makes blood cells
respiratory system
system that gathers oxygen from the environment and gets rid of carbon dioxide from the body
cardiovascular system
system that moves blood through the body
lymphatic system
system that returns leaked fluid back to the blood and helps get rid of invading bacteria and viruses
endocrine system
system that makes chemical messages, regulates conditions inside the body, and influence growth and development
integumentary system
system that acts as a barrier that protects the body from infection
excretory system
system that gets rid of the body's wastes
digestive system
system that breaks down food into nutrients that can be used by the body
nervous system
system that collects information and responds to it by sending electrical messages
by electrical messages and by chemical messages
What are the two basic ways cells communicate?
homeostasis
is the maintenance of a constant internal environment when outside conditions change
oxygen to carry out life processes, a energy supply, and have their wastes taken away
What are the three basic needs of a cell in the body?
pathogen
an organism, virus, or protein that causes disease
body cells can't work properly, disease or death, cells will be prevented from carrying out life processes, and cells may break down
What will happen if homeostasis is disrupted?
nervous system
is made up of the structures that control the actions and reactions of the body in response to stimuli from the environment
brain
the body's central command organ
spinal cord
a column of nerve tissue running from the base of the brain through the vertebral column. It allows your brain to communicate with the rest of your body.
neuron
is a cell that moves messages in the form of fast-moving electrical energy
axon
long branch from the cell body of a neuron that sends impulses away from the cell body.
dendrite
short, branched extension of the cell body that gathers information from other cells
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
sensory part and motor part
glial cells
cells that surround neurons and protect and support them
sensory neurons
neurons that gather information from in and around your body. They then move this information to the brain
motor neurons
neurons that move impulses from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
neurotransmitter
a chemical signal that is released into the gap between neurons and other cells. .
axon terminal
end of the axon that changes electrical signals to chemical signals
cell body
large region of a neuron that contains the nucleus and organelles. It gathers information from the dendrites.
vertebrae
protective bones that surround the spinal cord
retina
is a layer of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that change light into electrical impulses in the eye.
eardrum
a thin membrane separating the outer ear from the middle ear.
smell and taste
2 senses that process chemical information
lens
part of the eye that focuses light on the retina
cerebrum
largest part of the brain that stores memories, allows you to perform voluntary movements, think, problem-solve, and sense the environment
cerebellum
part of the brain that processes information from your body, allows you to keep track of your body position and coordinate body movement.
brain stem
part of the brain that connects your brain to the spinal cord
medulla
part of the brain stem that controls involuntary processes such as heart rate, involuntary breathing, and blood pressure
Compact Bone
bone type that is dense and does not have any visible open spaces so it makes the bone rigid and hard
Ligament
tough, flexible strand of connective tissue that holds that holds bones together. They connect bone to bones.
Joint
A place where two or mores bones meet.
Muscular System
The organ system whose primary function is movement and flexibility.
Tendon
A tough strand of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. They connect muscle to bone
Spongy Bone
bone type that has many open spaces and it provides strength and support for the bone
Compact Bone
bone type that is dense and does not have any visible open spaces so it makes the bone rigid and hard
Cartilage
a strong, flexible, and smooth tissue that is found at the end of bones.
Marrow
an outer layer of compact bone that surrounds the spongy bone and another soft tissue.
Fixed Joints
places where two bones come together in the body but are unable to move.
Movable Joints
A joint that allows movement of the bones
Osteoporosis
a disease of the skeletal system that causes bone tissue to become thin.
Smooth Muscle
a muscle found in internal organs and blood vessel. It helps move materials through the body
Cardiac Muscle
a tissue that makes up the heart.
Skeletal Muscle
a muscle that is attached to bones and allows movement
Hinge Joint
joints that work like door hinges, allowing bones to move back and forth.
flexor
muscles in a pair that bends a joint
extensor
muscles in a pair that straightens the joint
voluntary muscles
muscles that are under
your conscious control
involuntary muscles
muscles that you have no control over
collagen
name of protein found in bone
axial skeleton
part of the skeletal system that contains: the skull, vertebrae, and ribs
appendicular skeleton
part of the skeletal system that contains: arms, legs, shoulders, and pelvis
When a baby us born, it still has lots of cartilage.
Much of a newborn baby's skeleton is made of
calcium
Most plentiful mineral in bones, makes bones strong and hard
arthritis
a disease of the skeletal system that causes joints to swell, stiffen, and become painful
minerals, connective tissue, and marrow
What are bones made of?
Both cardiac and smooth are involuntary muscle
How are cardiac and smooth muscle similar?
muscle strength
refers to how much power a muscles has
muscle endurance
refers to how long the muscle can work without tiring
Because it helps maintain strength and flexibility
Why is exercise important for muscles?
flexibility
refers to the full range of motion of a joint