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Modern Civilization Midterm - Verbois
Terms in this set (55)
first democratic revolution
Believes we get our government from the nature of man. Foundation of government is Divine Law. Civil government comes from God.
Declaration of Independence
Significant document made by the founders to set a justification for a revolution. Argues that all men are equal, given inalienable rights by the Creator (life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness)
Observed american culture noticing it's sense of equality, individuality, and education. Fearful of democracy reaching a global level and overthrowing the aristocracies.
Believed in separation of church and state. Citizenship was limited to people of the church. Believed that liberty is the freedom to obey established authority (God & Government). Does not believe in natural liberty but in Civil liberty. Believes in the overall idea of a common wealth (some people are just better than others)
the liberty to do what we want, good or bad
the liberty Christ made us free with. the liberty to do the right thing. Winthrop believes in this
Does not believe there is one perfect way to have government. States that man is a free man, subject only to God. Lists the great immunities. Believes that we are all equal (contradictory of Winthrop)
Law of Nature
we cannot not know that something is wrong (we know right from wrong)
First great immunity
Man is a subject of the Law of Nature, because he is part of God's image
Second Great immunity
Because we are made in the imago Dei, there is something different about us than everyone else. We don't have the license to do what we want...we have the power, but not the freedom.
implies we have the power to act on our own judgment
Third great immunity
an equality amongst men
Believes society is produced by our wants, and government is produced by our wickedness. States government is a necessary evil as it provides a security required because we are destructive. Rejects that people can be above the law. Dislikes monarchy, and has no patience for religion. Believes in self-government, preferably a representative democracy. Is ready to break from Britains control as it is nothing but destructive.
Believed in the right to life, right to liberty, right to property with support to defend it, and a right to enter or leave a society. Govt. exists to support, protect and defend natural rights. Can be considered a vintage Locke. Believed when govt. rejected people's individual rights, they had reason/justification to rebel.
Primary leader of the french revolution. Used violence to force those around him to accept his ideas. Very nationalistic in nature. Envisioned a country where ambition is the desire to serve the country, everyone has equality, and where individuals take pride in the glory of their country. His views are similar to the 20th century views of totalitarianism.
A revolution of the people. People were upset with social classes and monarchy. Ideas were vastly different from the American Revolution. Revolutionaries wanted to remake man to work for the state. This revolution did not end successfully.
Believes in the idea of progress, and that people over time can be perfected. Religion is the opponent of reason. Believed that history plays the story of things bad leading ultimately to paradise on earth (WWI shattered this conception). Believes there are no natural law or rights given to us by God.
this was mentioned by it's absence in historical documents. People thought that if the south and north were connected this would end. It's benefits were not seen until the creation of the cotton gin.
Believed slavery is wrong because it is un-Christion, not good economically, believes it is a security problem, and believes blacks are equal to any other man. States that unless we are equal in some way, we will always focus on the ways we are unequal. Believes we have conditioned blacks to be uneducated over the course of slavery, so we shouldn't look to this condition as a way to justify equality.
Believes we are not equal in all respects, but in the respects that matter. Dislikes slavery, but wants to uphold the constitution and union. Disagreed with Douglas' idea of popular sovereignty, as he stated this denied slaves their rights as human beings.
the idea that every local community has the power to make their own laws regarding slavery, and no one else should worry/care about those laws.
Believes every human being has rights. Believes that to steal another man and make him your slave is piracy. All men should have rights and feel like a moral being. Notes that slavery during the 1830's had become a positive good.
woman. Poses the question what do we do about moral claim and the culture we live in. Suggests we understand the subject at hand, pray about it, speak about it truthfully, and act. Shows us we have an obligation and are commanded to be engaged in moral issues of our time.
A freed, educated, intelligent black slave. Found 4th of july ironic for blacks to celebrate as it represented a mockery and defilement of sacred American ideas of democracy, freedom, and equal rights. Was even more so disappointed in the church for not speaking out against slavery. States that a christian church which does not refute the Fugitive Slave Law is not a christian church at all.
argued that his time spent in a free state entitled him to emancipation. Court ruled that blacks could not gain citizenship and therefore were unable to petition the court for their freedom.
Goes against Benjamin Rush and compares blacks to the slaves in America vs. the blacks in Africa. Justifies slavery by saying that we treat them better than they were treated in Roman times. Believes that blacks are an inferior race, and we are doing them a favor by letting them be in our country as slaves.
Believes that slavery is tied in with society and we can't destroy slavery without destroying the society of the people. Believes slavery is not an evil but a good as we have made slaves better off. States that there has never been a wealthy society that has not lived on the labor of another.
Agrees with Calhoun in the sense that someone inferior has to do the work in order for society to thrive. Argues that slavery promotes community, morality, and protection. Believes free competition yields hostility. Believes slavery in the south elevates the slave.
World War I
caused a great sense of loss, discouragement, and doubt in America. Allowed an opportunity for people to make a historical impact. Lead people to think that fascism could be a good idea.
Author of modern times, believes we are beyond good and evil. Good and bad are associated with responsibility. Notes two major things that came out of WWI: Evils were carried out by nation states. Nation states capacity for evil is almost unlimited.
Popular for his theory of relativity. This had the unintended consequence of questioning relativity in the world, and also suggesting other relativity in the world.
Known for his idea of secret knowledge we can gain from understanding the subconscious. Became popular after WWI as people were looking for answers and he appeared to have them. His answers were blaming society, not the actual purpose.
Will to power
Main driving force in many totalitarian dictators such as Hitler, Lenin, Mussolini, Stalin. Is the striving to reach the highest possible position in life.
Author of Liberal Fascism. States that dictatorships and authoritarian nations are not always fascist in nature.
a stereotypical dictator who wants recognition, money, to be happy and healthy.
Want more than recognition. They want their ideas to make the state and man into what they want them to be (Hitler, Lenin)
translates to "the race"
A religion of the state. Everything within the state, nothing outside the state. You have the freedom to do your duty for the state and only for the state. Does away with the notion that we are equal
Invented fascism. Coined totalitarianism. Wanted people to love him. Argues for nationalism. Adds an element of national myth (telling people a story that motivates them to follow). Was seen as a Savior. Motivated more to a will of office not a will to power. Could be seen as an authoritarian dictator. Proposed the Third Way.
a humane society where everyone is taken care of and everyone contributes equally. Is about any regime that thinks the political can overwhelm all other aspects of life.
Logic of Totalitarianism
You can't stand still, if you do then you will digress, there has to be progression forward
The Third Way
proposed by Mussolini. Was a way between communism and democracy.
Called to office for his academic background. Undermines the ideas of individual rights. Sees the state as God. Does not believe that Divine law or history matter. Believes that the greatest good is democracy and individual liberties are a strain on this. Believes the american dream is over, capitalism is culprit. Promoted censorship for all things un-American.
dominating motive of the 20th century
Single minded. Clerical dictator. Did not care if people liked him. He judged men based on how they accepted his ideals. Believed the only way to get a revolution was to start it himself (through peasants). Controled the printing press. Believed socialism was the product of scientific knowledge. Did not feel compelled to fall under any morals or standards. Terrible economist.
Similarities of Hitler, Lenin, and Mussolini
All believed in the same idea of vanguard fighters to push socialism forward. They think the end times are near, and they're trying to rush in a heaven on earth.
Lenins four aims for takeover
1) To destroy all opposition outside the party
2) To place all power including the govt. into the party
3) To destroy all opposition to him personally within the party
4) To concentrate all power in the party into himself
Totalitarian dictator. Believes it is important to have an idea that arouses the masses. Master manipulator and political persuader. Used Triumph of Will for serious propaganda. Creates Nazi party that is anti-capitalist. Is a nationalist that wants Germany to take over everything.
Hitler's main ideas
1) Concentrate power in himself as leader
2) Hatred and fear of the Jews
3) Complete faith in the racial superiority of the German people
4) The necessity of using war to demonstrate the first three
Hitler's Party Platform
Gives an overall message of self-sacrifice for the greater glory of the country. Some ideas include: Unification of Germany. Citizenship by race (german race). State must provide a livelihood. Outlaw child labor. Creation of middle class. Social security.
Triumph of Will
Hitler's main source of propaganda. Uses this to sell an identity and success. Main message is Nationalism. Want's to line the viewer's identity to that of the propagandist (Hitler). Shows a representation of youth as the future of the country. Goes to show that in Hitler's Germany there is plenty for everyone if everyone does their part.
States that the popular leader is the expression of the general will. Leader stays in power because he understands the general will, and promises this.
problem began with focus on individualism. Freedom is not good.
Abolitionist. believed slave laws violated divine law
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