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Terms in this set (30)
Why are protists not considered a monophyletic group?
the group excludes some descendants (land plants, fungi, animals) of common ancestor
How does the nucleus of a eukaryote differ from the nucleus of a prokaryote?
By what probable mechanism did the nuclear envelope evolve?
evolutionary origin: infolding of plasma membrane and it created separate environments for transcription and translation (dna-rna-proteins)
Describe the endosymbiosis theory of the evolution of mitochondria in eukaryotes
prokaryote living within eukaryote; the prokaryote gains protection & organic molecules, developed double membrane; the eukaryote gains aerobic ATP production
List some of the evidence supporting the endosymbiosis theory of the evolution of mitochondria
mitochondria have their own dna (circular chromosome similar to proteobacteria); have their own ribosomes (structurally similar to bacterial ribosomes); replicate independently of the host cell (binary fission: similar to bacteria)
Describe the primary endosymbiosis theory of the evolution of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. How many membranes would a chloroplast be expected to have if it arose this way?
cyanobacteria within eukaryote; double membrane; origin of chloroplasts in Plantae
Describe the secondary endosymbiosis theory of the evolution of chloroplasts. How many membranes would a chloroplast be expected to have if it arose this way?
photosynthetic eukaryote within another eukaryote; 3-4 membranes; lineages other than Plantae
Describe the basic mechanisms unicellular protists use for locomotion
may move toward food/light; amoeboid motion: slide using pseudopodia; swim using cellular processes: flagella (long) or cilia (short)
List two examples of a symbiotic relationship between a photosynthetic protist and another organism
dinoflagellates in coral
algae in fungus (lichen)
Compare ingestive feeding with absorptive feeding
ingestive feeding: phagocytosis: prey surrounded + engulfed by pseudopodia; hunt for food; sit and wait for food: cilia beat to create currents to direct food into feeding opening
absorptive feeding: uptake of nutrients via transport across plasma membrane
Explain alternation between asexual and sexual reproduction in unicellular protists. Provide an example of unicellular protists in which a) the diploid cells predominate and b) the haploid cells predominate.
asexual reproduction via mitosis ; sexual reproduction via fusion
ex. dinoflagellates: unicellular with haploid stage dominating & diatoms: unicellular with diploid stage dominating
Describe alternation of generations in multicellular protists
Describe the importance of protists in food chains
Which protists are responsible for red tides?
Red tides cause by toxic blooms of dinoflagellates
What is the proper format for writing out the scientific (genus & species) name of an organism
Genus with capital and species is lower case italicized
Which genus of protists causes malaria? Which genus causes African sleeping sickness?
Plasmodium vivax (malaria)
Trypanosoma brucei (African Sleeping Sickness)
In which group of protists would you find organisms that digest cellulose in the digestive tract of termites?
Which group of protists is most closely related to animals?
"Slime mold" is a term applied to two quite different types of organisms, cellular and
plasmodial slime molds. What are the main differences between them?
Slime Mold : single cell; sexual and asexual reproduction
Plasmodial Slime Mold: muclinucleate, sexual and asexual reproduction
Are members of the Excavata unicellular or multicellular? What part of the cells is
unicellular with an excavated feeding groove
Which group of protists is believed to have evolved the chloroplast by primary endosymbiosis?
What is the distinguishing feature of members of the Rhizaria? What makes up the shell of a foraminiferan? What geological contributions have these organisms made? What other protist group is included in the Rhizaria, and why is it obvious that they acquired their chloroplasts by secondary endosymbiosis
lack cell wall; Foraminifera have calcium carbonate shells with holes for pseudopodia; form limestone deposits; Chlorarachniophytes have chloroplasts with 4 membranes
On what structural basis are organisms as diverse as ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexa lumped together in the Alveolata?
membranous sacs below plasma membrane
In addition to possessing cilia, what structural features do ciliates have?
two unequal sized nuclei
What is the arrangement of flagella in dinoflagellates? What is the composition of their cell wall? How do their chromosomes differ from those of other eukaryotes? What is their ecological significance?
dinoflagellates have perpendicular flagella covered by cellulose plates------------------
What organisms are contained within the lineage Stramenopila, and what morphological feature do they all share?
water molds, diatoms, brown algae; all have distinctive "hairy" flagella
Why are the diatoms considered ecologically important? What is chemically unique about their cell wall? What is recent significance of domoic acid produced by diatoms?
Diatoms are photoautotrophs they are main primary producers in ocean; their 2 piece cell wall contains silica
On what obvious basis do brown algae differ from other protists? What are large populations of brown algae called?
brown algae are multi cellular photoautotrophs; they form kelp beds
Fill in the table below with the lineage that best fits each description.
Fill in the table below with the lineages of the various groups.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
1C Bacteria and Archaea
2B 3A Green Plants
3B Plant Form & Function
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