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2B 3A Green Plants
Terms in this set (33)
What two types of organisms are included in the term "green plants"? What characteristic do they both share?
green algae and land plants; both have double membrane chloroplasts with chlorophyl a, b, and beta carotene; they synthesize starch (storage of energy/glucose)
What are plasmodesmata?
Fill in the table below describing lineages of green algae.
What are some of the "ecosystem services" land plants provide in terrestrial habitats?
generate O2, build soil, hold water in soil, prevent soil erosion, moderate local climate
What are some of the uses people have for land plants?
food, fuel, clothing, building materials, medicine
According to fossil evidence, how recently did land plants evolve? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of growing on land vs. in water?
arose ~475 million years ago; advantage of land: greater access to light and CO2; challenge of land: prevent desiccation, transport H2O and other materials; support against gravity; uv exposure
What are flavonoids, and how do they benefit land plants?
pigments that absorb uv radiation; contribute to flower and fruit coloration
What are stomata, and how do they benefit land plants?
stomata are pores; surrounded by guard cells: allow pore to open and close; reduces loss of H2O
What is the cuticle, and how does it benefit land plants?
waxy covering that holds H2O in
What is sporopollenin?
waxy substance; protection;prevents desiccation;extremely durable
List three phyla/divisions of non-vascular plants. What is the common name of each?
What two problems did vascular tissue solve for land plants?
transports water; provide structural support
In non-flowering land plants, what is the general name of the structure in which gametes are produced? What is the structure in which sperm are produced? What is the structure in which eggs are produced? Where does the plant sporophyte embryo develop? (Note: these terms do not apply to flowering plants.) What adaptive benefit do these structures provide to plants?
gametangia; sperm are from antheridia and eggs are archegonia; plant sporophyte nourish in the archegonium and it protects embryo
Describe the difference between homospory and heterospory. What are sporangia, microsporangia and megasporangia. What do microspores develop into? What do megaspores develop into? In which groups of plants does homospory predominate, and in which does heterospory predominate?
homospory is a single type of spore that develops into a single type of gametophyte which produces male&female gametes; heterospory is when sporophyte produces two types of spores- micro(male) and megaspores (female);
In what type of habitat do you find mosses (bryophytes)? What two reasons restrict them to this habitat?
In mosses, is the gametophyte metabolically dependent on the sporophyte, or is the sporophyte metabolically dependent on the gametophyte?
sporophyte dependent on gametophyte
Why is vascular tissue an advantage for plants? What are the two types of vascular tissue? What reinforcing compound gives vascular tissue added structural strength?
What is the type of habitat to which ferns are restricted, and why? How do the relative sizes of the sporophyte and gametophyte in ferns differ from the relative sizes in mosses? How would you describe the fern gametophyte in terms of size, and independence from, (or dependence on) the sporophyte?
List four phyla/divisions of seedless vascular plants. What is the common name of each?
Lycophyta(club mosses); Psilophyta(whisk ferns); Equisetophyta(horsetails); Pteridophyta(ferns)
How does the spore of seed plants differ from that of seedless plants? How are sperm delivered to the egg differently in seed plants?
How would you describe the seed plant gametophyte in terms of: size, and independence from (or dependence on) the sporophyte?
How are offspring dispersed differently in the seed plants vs. the seedless plants? Which stage of the life cycle is being dispersed in each case? Why is dispersal of offspring important for the plant?
What are the three main components of a seed?
embryo, endosperm, seed coat
Where are spores produced in pines? Where do the resulting gametophytes develop? What is another name for the pine male gametophyte? How are pollen grains carried from one pine to another?
male cone produces microspore-pollen grain
How does the xylem of angiosperms differ from that of gymnosperms?
xylem cells in angiosperms have tracheids and vessel elements; gymnosperms have tracheids only
What are the names and what are the components of the male and female parts of a flower?
anther produces microspores which develop into pollen (male gametophyte/sperm); ovule produces megaspores which produce female gameotophyte which produces egg
What are the functions of flowers?
flowers attract animals for pollen dispersal and pollination
From what structure do fruits develop, and what is their function?
fruits derive from ovary and attract animals for seed dispersal
What structure constitutes the male gametophyte in flowering plants?
microspores develop into pollen (male gametophyte/sperm)
How do flowering plants depend upon animals for dispersal of pollen and seeds?
animals eat flowers and dump it somewhere else or gather pollen while taking nectar
To which phylum/division do flowering plants belong?
Angiosperms; phylum Anthopyta
Fill in the table below describing lineages of flowering plants (angiosperms).
Fill in the table below comparing various attributes of the different groups of land plants.
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