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Unit 8 (forces and motion)
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Gravity
Terms in this set (36)
speed
a rate that measures the distance an object travels in a certain amount of time
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one form/object to another
kinetic energy
energy of moving objects
potential energy
stored energy of object due to their POSITION
velocity
the rate at which an object moves in a certain direction (speed AND direction)
frame of reference
motion is relative; it is always described in relation to a reference point
force
a push or pull that can change an object's motion
newtons
unit to measure force; one of these units is equal to the force that would move a 1 kg mass one meter per second every second
acceleration
a change to an object's speed (faster or slower) or direction over time
m/s/s
units used to represent acceleration; read as "meters per second squared"
net force
the overall or total force on an object
balanced force
when the net force is zero and there is no change in an object's motion
unbalanced force
causes an object to have a change in its motion ("leftover" force that "wins")
friction
a force that opposes the motion of any objects that touch
air resistance (fluid friction)
the opposing force that results from the contact between AIR and objects moving through it
inertia
matter's resistance to a change in motion
(rise/run) OR (change in y/change in x)
formula to calculate slope of a line
slope
rate of change of a line; steepness of a line
AVERAGE speed
the TOTAL distance a trip takes in the TOTAL time it takes to complete the trip
as mass increases, KE increases; as mass decreases, KE decreases
relationship between mass and KE
as velocity increases, KE increases; as velocity decreases, KE decreases
relationship between velocity and kinetic energy
gravitational potential energy
stored energy due to a position off of the Earth's surface (height)
as mass increases, PE increases; as mass decreases, PE decreases
relationship between mass and potential energy
Sir Isaac Newton
scientist who studied forces and motion and came up with 3 laws of motion
N (capitalized)
abbreviation for the unit newton (used for forces)
spring scale
tool used to measure force
net force = 2 N to the right (unbalanced forces)
net force = 50 N to the left (unbalanced forces)
net force = 0 N (forces are balanced)
Newton's 1st law of motion
an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Newton's 2nd law of motion
the greater the mass of an object, the more force is required to move the object; the more force applied to the object, the more quickly it will change its motion (accelerate)
F = ma
formula to show relationship between force, mass and acceleration (Newton's 2nd Law)
Newton's 3rd law of motion
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; forces act in pairs
collision
moving energy can be passed on to another object, but is never destroyed; KE is transferred
d = rt
formula for speed (the rate of distance traveled over time)
PE decreases as KE increases
Relationship between potential and kinetic energy as a pendulum is lifted to a height and then swings down
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