92 terms

2nd Semester Final Review


Terms in this set (...)

Dred Scott
Slave whose owner took him from Missouri to free Illinois and free Wisconsin
Roger B. Taney
U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, he wrote the majority opinion in the Dred Scott decision, stating that African Americans were not citizens and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Abraham Lincoln
16th president of the United States, 1860-1865. During the Civil War, he primarily focused on the Union and stated that the purpose of the war was not to free the slaves but to maintain the United States. Though he believed in abolition, he was only a moderate. In 1865, he was assassinated.
Stephen Douglas
two-term senator
-won the election
-accused Lincoln on being a radical that favored race mixing
-idea; popular sovereignty
-nickname=little giant
John Brown
Head of Harper's Ferry Raid
-obtained financial backing from abolitionists
-believed it was time for an uprising
-his plan failed
-tried for treason
Robert Smalls
Forced to work on confederate ship
fighting against union
gained his freedom by meeting with other blacks to make a plan, took over ship, switched flag, and escaped
state legislature of S.C.
Benjamin Butler
-Didn't return slaves; dilemma- fugitive slave law
Argues that the south has seceded so he doesn't need to return the slaves back to their owner. If they have left the union, then they've also left that law behind
Clement Vallandigham
thinks civil war is a waste of money
critical of Lincoln
thought everyone in north should avoid draft
sentenced to military prison
kicked out of union
killed himself in court by showing how to use gun
Andrew Johnson
poor; born into a poor family in N.C.
After succession he was the only senator from a confederate state to stay loyal to the union.
Blamed planter class for war- hated wealthy people
Was for black codes
Seemed to be talking tougher than Lincoln
vetoed civil rights and freedmen's bureau act
Made everyone mad
William T. Sherman
Union general
-ruined a ton of land and handed it over to A.A.
-first to face runaway slaves
-wants to get rid of them but they want land so he gives it to them
Alexander Stephens
vice president of confederacy
during reconstruction they want land so he gives them land
fought against secession
○ Wovoka was a Paiute Indian Medicine Man
○ He was one of the men who started the religious ceremony called the "Ghost Dance" and the local police thought that by doing the "Ghost Dance" he was agitating the Indians and sparking a fight.
- He may have been one of the guys that started the Wounded Knee battle (1890) (Sioux Indians led by Spotted Elk (BigFoot)) in South Dakota with his "Ghost Dance"
* Women and Children were Massacred
* Wounded Knee was the last Indian battle in history
○ Wovoka and other medicine men who started the "Ghost Dance" got arrested and were subdued by the U.S. army
Jesus Sandoval
Mexican man who went with 2 young boys to find some goats, but was captured by Texas Rangers, who believed that he was trying to cross the border to avoid the draft. He was held at gunpoint, but eventually got free, and was tried and found innocent.
Alice Paul
leader of the National Woman's Party and the Congressional Union, campaigned for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution and led protests
Jukichi Harada
The Harada family owned a house on Lemon Street in Riverside, but the mostly-white residents of the neighborhood tried to buy them out. When this failed, they took them to court. They decided to place the land in the name of their children, and the court case was ruled in their favor.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. Vertical integration.
Andrew Carnegie
Founded the Carnegie Steel Company. Dominated the American steel industry. Vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Philanthropist. "Robber Baron." Gospel of Wealth.
Eugene Debs
One of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
Leader of the American Railway Union. Led union workers in the Pullman strike. Jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Theodore Roosevelt
Increased size of Navy. Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick." Mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France. Rough Rider (helped him gain fame after San Juan Hill). "Trust Buster."
Henry Ford
Ford Motor Company. Made assembly line production more efficient - a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them. Single color offered.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
Thaddeus Stevens
The most radical republican
-wants land seized and given to slaves
-representative of Pennsylvania
-said Lincoln's plan is too lenient
Hiram Revels
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded.
Nathan Bedford Forest
Founder of the KKK. Has the most memorials in his name out of anyone that is memorialized.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Governor of Ohio
Won 1876 elections against Tilden
Won electoral votes
-made deal to become president
Emmett Till
14 year old African American boy lynched for looking at a white woman.
Homer Plessy
African American man who challenged the Louisiana law requiring blacks to ride in a separate car on trains. "Separate but Equal" constitutional.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes. Presided over the Brown V. Board of Education.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery and so triggered the national civil rights movement
Orville Faubus
He was the governor of Arkansas during the time of the Little Rock Crisis. He attempted to block the integration of the school by using the national guard, leading to a confrontation with the Eisenhower and ultimately integration of the school.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. Opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Worked with Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Freedom Riders.
Juan Carlos
U.S. sprinter who won the bronze medal in the Mexico City Olympics and gave a Black Power salute while they played the U.S. national anthem in honor of him. Wore beaded necklace and unzipped jacket.
Tommy Smith
Gold medalist expelled from the 1968 Olympics for having on a black scarf (for Black pride), wearing black socks (without shoes, Black poverty), wearing a beaded necklace as a memento to those killed in racial hate, (friend) unzipped jacket as a blue collar worker, one (John Carlos) forgot gloves, so they split one pair of gloves to raise their hands in victory.
Sun Elk
Native American who tried to assimilate into white culture. Eventually went back to his old tribe because Americans suck.
Ben O Davis
The first African American general in the US Army
Fred Korematsu
One of the many Japanese-American citizens living on the West Coast during WWII. After the execution of Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of all Japanese Americans from designated "military areas" and their placement in internment camps, he became a fugitive. His conviction for disobeying that order led to a test of the order's legality before the US Supreme Court. The Supreme Court that the relocation of Japanese Americans was constitutional because it guarded the safety of the majority of Americans.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Two Italian immigrants and Anarchists (people against all forms of government) who were blamed for the murder of a guard at a shoe factory and the subsequent robbery of the factory. Anti-immigrant and anti-anarchy mindsets of the era sentenced these men to death before even being proven guilty.
Clarence Darrow
Famous lawyer of the 1920s era. Presided over both the case of Leopold and Loeb (perfect murder) and the Scopes Monkey Trial.
John Scopes
A substitute science teacher who taught a class in Tennessee the theory of evolution rather than creationism. He was sued by the state of Tennessee for these actions and was eventually fined $100.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver (while running for president three times) and prosecuted John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school.
Michael Meehan
Corrupted the stock market by getting a few wealthy men to invest in a stock and then told the news to publicize that stock so that they would get more money. Essentially exploiting the stock market system with insider trading.
Herbert Hoover
A Republican elected president in 1929 who assured the country that the economy was stronger than ever and would only continue to get stronger. Under his control, the stock market crashed and the Great Depression began. However, this president believed that welfare programs decreased people's self-worth and sense of individualism and only established programs that would have a trickle-down effect on the lower classes. (PRIVATE INTEREST PRESIDENT)
Douglas MacArthur
A general called in by Hoover to clear DC's Pennsylvania Avenue, but his overzealous personality led him to eradicate every Bonus Army member with violence. Armed with only stones and bricks, the protesters were no match for the guns and tear gas of the Army. This man's actions horrified Hoover, but he took responsibility. Later became a WWII hero.
Began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression. Was the nation's leader during most of WWII. Elected four times. Democratic Coalition.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women.
Francis Townsend
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935. Strongly opposed FDR.
Huey Long
"Kingfish", A Senator from Louisiana who proposed a "Share Our Wealth" program that promised a minimum annual income of $5,000 for every American family which would be paid for by taxing the wealthy. (100% tax on 1 million dollars). Announced his candidacy for president in 1935, but was killed by an assassin. Criticized FDR.
Francis Perkins
The U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945 and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition.
Benito Mussolini
"Il Duce", fascist leader of Italy, led the Black Shirts to march on Rome where he was established as dictator before World War II. He joined forces with Hitler and Tojo to form the Axis Powers.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich. His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf, attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. His pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent.
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition. During World War II he signed a non-aggression pact with Germany but also allied with the United States and England.
Emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989; he led Japan during World War II and was forced into unconditional surrender following the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Was considered a god-like figure.
Neville Chamberlain
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany but was replaced in 1941 by Winston Churchill.
Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister who replaced Chamberlain in 1941. He lead England through World War II and allied with the United States and the Soviet Union to fight the Axis powers. When the war ended, he predicted Stalin would lower an "iron curtain" over Eastern Europe
Gerald Nye
Republican of North Dakota, headed a 1934-1936 Senate investigation, which concluded that banking and munition interests, whom it called "merchants of death", had tricked the US into war to protect their loans and weapon sales to England and France.
Charles Lindberg
A World War I pilot who flew the first solo trans-Atlantic flight. Prior to the U.S.'s entry into World War II, he urged the U.S. to remain neutral and was active with the America First Committee, though during the war he flew 50 combat missions in the Pacific.
A. Phillip Randolph
African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who planned a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries and the armed forces during World War II.
Dwight Eisenhower
President of the United States following Harry Truman in 1953. Escalated the war in Vietnam by supporting France's efforts to maintain control of Vietnam. During World War II he organized D-Day, the invasion of the beach in Normandy and one of the most successful (and largest) allied attacks during the war. He also oversaw Operation Torch, Casablanca, and the defeat of Germany in Europe. Warned America of the Military Industrial Complex.
Douglas MacArthur
U.S. general and World War II hero. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the Southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Robert Oppenheimer
United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (Manhattan Project).
Leo Szilard
Leading physicist in the Manhattan Project, created the petition signed by 70 other scientists arguing that it would be immoral to drop an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning due to their near-defeat status at the time.
Leslie Groves
Military general commander of the Manhattan Project.
James Byrnes
This man ran FDR's Office of Economic Stabilization. Under his rule from 1942 to 1946, the US was an absolute socialist model run off of this department. He was arguably the most powerful man in America during the war.
Invasion of Manchuria (1931)
The Japanese, motivated by the need for raw materials and a desire to take over Chinese territory and expand, invaded the province of Manchuria and held the territory until the end of the war, when they were forced by the United States to give it up.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Non-Aggression Pact (1939)
A pact signed by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 promising that neither country would take directly aggressive action against the other. This was broken by Germany when Hitler decided to invade the Soviet Union.
Nye Committee
Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."
Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936
Designed to keep us out of this war. Congress says no selling arms to either side. FDR says that if people want to visit these countries they are on their own, no one will accompany them.
Invasion of Poland (1939)
On September 1st, 1939, Hitler and the Nazi military force invaded Poland, annexing it as an extension of Germany under the power of Hitler. This caused Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Cash and Carry (AKA Neutrality Act of 1939)
Policy passed by the United States government which stated that we would sell military supplies to any country provided they paid in cash and transported the weapons or supplies with their own ships.
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before World War II, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Selective Service Act (Sept. 1940)
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of World War I, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
The name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies.
USS Greer, Pink Star, USS Kearny, Reuben James
American boats attacked by Nazis before the United States entered World War II. FDR gave the US ships permission to shoot on sight in the future. This was proof that we were fighting the Nazis at sea before our official entrance into the war after Pearl Harbor.
Atlantic Charter
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of World War II and to work for peace after the war was ended.
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Europe First
Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific during World War II.
Casablanca Conference
FDR and Churchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Battle of Stalingrad
World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war, as the Soviet Union was finally able to drive back the German Army.
June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot-hold in Normandy.
Yalta Conference
1945 meeting between Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt in which the leaders discussed plans for the post-war world and Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe. The breaking of this promise led in part to the Cold War. Stalin also promised that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific three months after the war in Europe ended.
V-E Day
May 8th, 1945. Victory in Europe Day- the day that Germany declared it's unconditional surrender to the Allied Forces.
Doolittle's Raid
Lt. Colonel Doolittle's psychological point was to bomb Tokyo and several other Japanese cities. This did little damage. It was an important psychological point for both Americans and Japanese: Japan was vulnerable to attack. It was the first mainland bombing in Japan and was intended solely to boost American morale.
Battle of Midway
U.S. Naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II when the Allied forces began taking back occupied islands.
Island Hopping
The American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan. Strategy developed by Chester Nimitz
Battle of Midway
U.S. Naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II when the Allied forces began taking back occupied islands.
In World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships on suicide missions.
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded this island, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000. This was the last battle before the Atomic Bombs were dropped.
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Europe First
Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific during World War II.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945. The unconditional surrender of Japan followed this event.