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Language and Literacy Development
Terms in this set (173)
Study of the acoustical and articulatory characteristics of human speech sounds
Manner of Articulation
Refers to how the tongue and/or lips control airflow to vary phonemes
Refers to the awareness of the sounds that make up a spoken language
Awareness of the individual phonemes or speech sounds used in the child's native language
Phonological Awareness Instruction
• to recognize the speech sounds they hear
• to identify and differentiate these sounds
• to produce them accurately
• and to manipulate them
How do children develop phonological awareness?
Through exposure to language and through direct training, both of which are provided by the adults around them and in their lives.
Knowledge of letter-sound relationships
The ability to use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to accurately read a word.
Blending/combining individual sounds/letters to form words
Strong phonological and phonemic awareness in children is often a predictor of what?
Future long-term success in spelling, reading, and literacy performance
A set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Using the visual system to form, store, and recall words
the study of speech sounds and how they change depending on certain situations or placements in syllables, words, and sentences.
What does skilled reading require?
The coordination of orthographic processing, phonological processing, and the processing of meaning and context.
the smallest unit of speech that has meaning.
-- plural "s" ending
-- past tense "ed" ending
the aspect of language function that relates to understanding the meanings of words, phrases and sentences, and using words appropriately when we speak
he area of language function that embraces the use of language in social contexts (knowing what to say, how to say it, and when to say it - and how to "be" with other people).
-- how to speak at home vs. how to speak at school
"Following the CAR"
Comment - the adult should comment on what a child is looking at, handling, or talking about, then wait 5 seconds.
Ask - to continue the conversation the adult has begun and/or to start a new one, the adult should then ask the child questions about something the child is looking at, handling, or talking about. Adult should then wait 5 seconds again to give the child time to respond
Respond - Once the child gives an oral response, the adult should respond to what the child says by repeating the child's response and then adding a bit more information to extend the child's knowledge.
What is a "real" conversation?
Conversations that interest the child and consist of three to four exchanges/turns between the child and the adult
Teaching strategies that support children's active participation in real conversations
• attentively listening to what the children say
• inviting children to join extended conversations with adults and peers
• demonstrating a genuine interest in and affection for the children
• sending verbal and non-verbal messages that are consistent
• avoiding making judgemental comments about children or anybody else to or in front of the children
• availing oneself of spontaneously occurring opportunities for informal conversations with each child
• basing conversations on children's specific interests
Stages of English as a Second Language
2. Early Production
3. Speech Emergence
4. Intermediate Fluency
5. Advanced Fluency
• Takes place during roughly the first 6 months of learning
• Listening comprehension is minimal
•Does not speak English, but can nod/shake the head "yes/no", draw pictures, and point at things
Early Production Stage
• Lasts from roughly 6 months to 1 year into learning
• Limited English comprehension
• Can utter 1 to 2 word answers, essential words, familiar phrases, and present tense verbs
Speech Emergence Stage
• Lasts about 1 to 3 years into learning
• Comprehend English well
• Speak in simple sentences, but still make mistakes in pronunciation and grammar
• Misunderstand jokes in English
Intermediate Fluency Stage
• Lasts about 3 to 5 years into learning
• Excellent English listening comprehension
• Do not make many grammatical errors
Advanced Fluency Stage
• Reach this stage between 5 to 7 years after they start learning English
• English language proficiency is similar to that of a native English speaker
When an ESL learner in one stage of acquisition is given instructional input that includes some structures characteristic of the next stage of acquisition and is also encouraged to use language reflective of that next, higher stage, the learner will advance to that next stage in listening and speaking. (Expressed at i + 1)
i = speakers actual or current level/stage
i + 1 = speaker's potential second language development level
Jane Hill's "WORD-MES" Formula
Mnemonic device for the key steps in applying the stages of second language development to ESL instruction.
WORD (Preproduction Stage)
- Students need help with word selection, learning basic vocabulary words.
MODEL (Early Production Stage)
- Students benefit from modeling good English. Correct by recasting student's responses, such as "I goed to park," you can say "Oh, you went to the park."
EXPAND (Speech Emergence Stage)
- Add adjectives or adverbs, for example. If a student says or writes "He ran to the park," you can expand by saying (or writing) "He ran quickly to the park." You can also give synonyms or change the word order to show how
to expand language
SOUND (Intermediate and Advanced Fluency Stage)
- "Sound like a book" Help students expand their vocabulary by exposing them to words above their current level. In
early grades, students acquire a great deal of vocabulary by repeated chants or readings of books.
Refers to the pronunciation of specific speech sounds and phonemes
Instructional strategies to promote early literacy development and reading comprehension
• Interactive Book Reading (3S Strategy, Wh- Questions, Expanded Book Reading)
• The 3N Strategy
• Extended Teaching
• Problem Solving
• Curriculum-Embedded Assessments
Interactive Book Reading
Should be used at least once per day with each child. Children participate either individually or in pairs. Done in addition to reading in large and small groups.
Purpose: Stimulate responsive, recirprocal instructional conversations between each child and the teacher.
1. Notice - teacher notices the level of an individual child's literacy skills
2. Nudge - teacher verbally nudges the child to do things that are a step above their current skill level
3. Narrate - teacher narrates what the child does, verbally describing and reflecting the child's activities
1. See - teacher asks the child to see/look at a specific feature in a book, such as the main character.
2. Show - teachers asks the child to locate an image or word on a page.
3. Say - teacher asks the child to say a word/answer a question. During this step, the teacher asks the child questions beginning with who, what, where, when, and why.
If the child succeeds at one step, they then move onto the next step.
Expanded Book Reading
• ask children to predict the possible subject matter of the book
• discuss setting, characters, and events in a book with
• help children relate the story in a book to their own lives
• enhance the meaning of stories in a book by acting them out using puppets and other props
Refers to anything done outside of simply reading the book
Both a genre and a format that encompasses various other genres. It includes wordless storybooks, which contains only pictures. Picture books integrate pictures and text to create a multimodal experience. The text is the most important feature. Illustrations are secondary but complementary to the text.
Contain poems rather than prose. Can use concrete verse, free verse, and rhymed and metered verse. Poetry emphasizes the sounds and meanings of words and appeals to both readers' emotions and thoughts.
A form of oral storytelling. It includes fairy tales, fables, folklore, epics, and proverbs. "Once upon a time..." introductions and happy endings are common features. Modern fantasy is based on traditional literature, but it is original --- includes modern fairy tales.
Imaginary, and often focus on good vs. evil conflicts, magic, and/or quests.
Non-fiction Informational Books
Include narrative, how-to, question and answer, activity, life cycle, and concept texts.
What abilities can children demonstrate to show they have phonological awareness?
• Recognize rhymes they hear
• Can rhyme words
• Can "count" the number of syllables in a word by clapping
• Can identify words with matching initial sounds
What abilities can children demonstrate to show they have phonemic awareness?
Children would be able to manipulate individual phonemes in words. For example, they can separate the sounds that make-up the word "cat"
Words we must know to understand what we hear others say
Words we use when we talk
Words we must know to comprehend what we read
Words we use when we write
The ability to read quickly, accurately, and smoothly both silently and aloud, and to read aloud with appropriate vocal intonations and expression
Why do teachers conduct correct words per minute assessments?
To assess whether a child may have a fluency issue. The main focus in on the rate the child reads.
To have good reading comprehension, children must be able to...
1. decode the words they read.
2. connect what they read to things they already know.
3. think about what they have read in depth.
Five basic reading components of phonological and phonemic awareness
Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Children with CAPD have problems attending to, listening to, and remembering spoken information, and often take longer to process auditory input.
The ability to see or hear a word, break it down to discrete sounds, and then associate each sound with letter(s) to that make up the word
Holds small pieces of information for short periods of time
Holds interim information in the mind for use during calculations
Processing new information so that it can be stored for a long period of time, searching for stored information, and retrieving information as it is needed are also functions of the working memory.
Stores an enormous amount of information for many years
Indicators of Dyslexia (children's speech skills)
• Mispronouncing unfamiliar, long, or complex words
• Speech that is not fluent
• Speech the uses vague or non-specific wording
• Difficulty finding words while speaking
Indicators of Dyslexia (children's reading skills)
• Lack systematic strategies for reading new words
• Unable to read short function words (an; on; that)
• Miss parts of words when reading
• Mispronounce numerous words when reading aloud
Gentry's Stages of Children's Spelling Development
1. Pre-communicative Stage
2. Semiphonetic Stage
3. Phonetic Stage
4. Transitional Stage
5. Corret Stage
• Children use alphabet letters, but may not know the whole alphabet
• May not differentiate between upper case and lower case letters
• May not know that English is written from left to right
• They do not demonstrate knowledge of letter-to-sound correspondences
• Children begin to comprehend letter-to-sound correspondences
• Frequently use simple logic to symbolize words with single letters. For example, using "U" for "you"
•Children use letters to represent all speech sounds they hear in words
Children begin the transition from phonetically spelling words according to their sounds to visually and structurally learning conventional word spellings.
•Children know fundamental orthographic (spelling) rules
• They have learned many word spellings, and recognize misspellings.
Writing Skills Development
Scribbling and Drawing
Young children grasp crayons/pencils with their fists, exploring form, space, and line.
Letter-Like Forms and Shapes
They comprehend that written symbols represent meanings.
Children can form letters, and start writing them randomly. They usually write consonants first.
Letters and Spaces
Children realize that printed/written words are separated by spaces, develop the concept of a word, use 1:1 word correspondence, and write correctly spaced words.
Conventional Writing and Spelling
Children write, spell, and punctuate correctly most of the time. They view various forms of purposeful writing as more important.
3 areas to focus on when rating a child's writing efforts to assess emerging writing skills
• Language Level
• Message Quality
• Directional Principles
writes any recognizable word
writes any two-word phrase
writes any simple sentence
writes two or more related sentences
includes two themes
1. Student has concept of signs/symbols
2. Student has a concept that a message is communicated
3. Student copies a message
4. Student repeats sentence patterns like "This is a..."
5. Student tries to record their own ideas in writing
6. Student writes a successful composition
1. Student does not demonstrate knowledge of directionality
2. Student exhibits partial directional knowledge (left to right, top to bottom)
3. Student reverses the direction
4. Student follows the correct directional pattern
5. Student uses correct directionality and spacing between words
6. The student writes extensively without problems related to arranging and spacing text
The ability to produce language, such as speaking and writing
The ability to comprehend speech, such as listening and reading
What is the difference between receptive language and expressive language?
Receptive language is the ability to understand words and language. Receptive language also is responsible for understanding concepts such as size, shape, color, time, and sentence structure.
Expressive language is the use of words, sentences, gestures, and writing to create a message or convey a meaning. This is critical for social communication and communication of needs.
The process of saying the individual sounds in a word then running them together to make the word
Words that are made up of a consonant, vowel, and a consonant
Words that have the same sound beginning sound near one another
- two letters that come together to make one sound
then (th), shoe (sh), wheel (wh), phone (ph), math (th)
- letter combinations in which two vowels together make a single sound
brain (ai), deep (ee), caught (au), soup (ou)
Sound that is made up of two separate vowel sounds within the same syllable.
boy (oy), bout (ou), boil (oi), bow (ow)
Fluent readers use prosody (pitch, stress, and timing) to convey meaning when they read aloud.
The defining feature of expressive reading, comprises all of the variables of timing, phrasing, emphasis, and intonation that speakers use to help convey aspects of meaning and to make their speech lively.
How can teachers provide literacy instruction to address individual students' needs and their growing knowledge and skills?
Teachers address these various needs by:
• providing differentiated instruction
• using the results of diagnostic assessments to help them identify students' strengths and needs
• forming small groups of students with similar needs and then planning instruction to target those needs.
Monitor student learning during instruction and continues to occur throughout the lesson. Teachers use these to further inform their instruction.
Think-pair-share, exit cards, response cards
Evaluates student's performance at periodic intervals, frequently at the end of a grading period.
DIBELS, PA's benchmark assessment
Assess a student's strengths, weaknesses, and knowledge prior to instruction.
Measure a student's achievement at the end of instruction. High stakes, worth many points.
End of chapter quiz/test
Assess to see if a student requires specialized assistance or services for developmental, physical, cognitive, or academic needs.
Factors that can disrupt fluency success
Limited phonics knowledge
Weak decoding skills
Lack of automaticity
Limited vocabulary and/or academic knowledge
AKA Morphemic Analysis
the ability to gain information about the meaning, pronunciation, and part of speech of new words from their prefixes, roots, and suffixes
When children learn that print is written and read from left to right and from top to bottom of the page, they are acquiring:
The goal of reading and writing instruction in the primary grades is to ensure that all children reach the fluent stage of reading by
The end of 1st grade
Children are usually at the emergent stage of reading and writing in
Pre-K and Kindergarten
Children read words accurately, rapidly, and automatically and they read with expression at the
A first-grade teacher would like to provide scaffolding for students who are struggling to learn to read and write. An effective scaffolding technique would be
Interactive writing is a cooperative event in which text is jointly composed and written. The teacher uses the interactive writing session to model reading and writing strategies as he or she engages children in creating text.
The concept that stories have a beginning, middle, and end is referred to as
Phonemic awareness is the basic understanding that
speech is composed of a series of individual sounds.
When working with students who are English learners, researchers recommend
providing explicit instruction in phonemic awareness.
Preschool teachers can nurture young children's phonemic awareness with developmentally appropriate activities such as
singing songs and sharing word play books.
In the word, cat, the rime is
The strategy of identifying words by examining root words and affixes of longer words is called
Morphemic Analysis/Structural Analysis
The ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation is known as
The technique in which students practice reading stories to develop fluency is
What are the components involved in reading fluency?
Speed, prosody, automaticity, and accuracy
Children select a topic, consider purpose, audience, and form and gather and organize ideas for writing during what stage of the writing process?
When a teacher and students create a text together, they engage in
Children pour out ideas with little concern about spelling, punctuation, and other mechanical errors during the
Of the following, the best way to assess students' writing would be to use
Rubrics developed by the teacher
The students in a fourth grade class select their own writing topics and write independently while the teacher circulates to monitor their work. This class is participating in
Diagrams that provide organized visual representations of information from texts are
Informational books are organized using
expository text structures
A fourth grade teacher is compiling a text set for students to use during a thematic unit. As he selects books, this teacher has correctly decided to
select books written on a range of levels to fit the needs of all students
What is the difference between editing and revising?
Revising is the changing of ideas and editing is the stage in which you look for punctuation and spelling errors
Would you teach this word morphemically or syllabically?
A teacher wants to stress to her students the importance of tone and audience awareness when writing. Which of following activities would be appropriate for her fourth grade students?
Interviewing a kindergartener and a teacher
After her teacher discussed several books, Julie, a third grade student, decided to read Charlotte's Web. She formed a group with her friends to discuss that book. This student participated in a:
How many morphemes are in the word "unwanted"?
A type of scoring guide which can assist teachers in assessing a child's writing is a
(Holistic or Analytic)
Running Records can best be used to determine a child's:
A teacher helped his students understand the meaning of the prefix post by discussing terminology used in football games such as postseason and postgame. With this lesson, the teacher introduced his students to:
When readers create mental images of what they are reading, they are using the strategy of:
What is an effective way for a teacher to assess students' ability to apply comprehension strategies?
Ask students to think aloud and share their thinking as they read passages
During guided reading, students read books at their:
What is the difference between a child's instructional reading level and their independent reading level?
An independent reading level is a level at which a child can read a text on his/her own with ease. The child makes hardly any errors when reading the text and has excellent comprehension of the story. The child can read the story alone with confidence.
An instructional reading level is a level at which a child needs the support of a teacher, parent, or tutor. This is the level where students are introduced to new vocabulary and is where the greatest progress in reading occurs.
What does an Informal Reading Inventory usually consists of?
Graded word lists and passages
When students go beyond literal comprehension and make connections that are not explicitly stated in a text, they are making:
Allowing students to spell words that reflect their developmental knowledge of phonics is known as the practice of invented spelling. In which type of classroom, are you most likely to see this approach used
A classroom that is primarily focused on whole language approach.
The whole language approach describes a literacy philosophy which emphasizes that children should focus on meaning and strategy instruction. Not as much emphasis is put on the children being phonemically accurate.
A teacher is observed showing children how to hold books and turn pages. They also learn that text is followed from left to right. The students engage in pretend reading to one another. This behavior would be observed in a classroom full of
Sometimes parents are not up-to-date on current instructional practices. Which would be a good way to explain invented spelling to a parent of a kindergarten student?
The use of letter-sound relationship to attempt to write words
A teacher reads through a big book and then reads through it again because students enjoy it so much. What follow up activity would promote oral language development?
Acting out the story with puppets
What should students work on if they have weak reading comprehension skills?
Go back and work on fluency
What should students work on if they have are bad at reading fluently?
Go back and work on decoding and phonics
A child pretend reads and is starting to work on print directionality and understands how to handle a book. All of these are skills of what?
What is phonemic awareness?
When a child is aware of the sounds only
What is the alphabetic principle?
when students put together the sound of letters w/ the actual letter
A syllable can normally be divided into two parts.
( 1 )
which consists of the initial consonant or consonant blend
( 2 )
which consists of the vowel and any final consonants
(Str) - Onset
(ap) - Rime
Graphemes vs. Phonemes
Graphemes are the written letters
Example --"B" "Ph"
Phonemes are the sounds that coordinate with the written letters (graphemes)
Example --"Bah" "Fa"
How can teachers asses phonic skills?
By having students' read nonsense words
How can a teacher assess students' level of phonological awareness?
How many words are in the sentence "I am happy?"
Do these word rhyme? "Big, Fig"
I am going to say a word in parts. Listen: o...pen. What word did I say?
Can you tell me the two word parts in "open?" (Correct response: o...pen)
Say "open" without the "-pen."
What word do these sounds make? /s/ - /ee/
How about /h/ - /op/?
Breaking a sentence apart
Teacher has the class clap to every word in a poem. Why?
To teach the students word segmentation
When should you use decodable books (BOB books)?
When a child is good at sight words and phonics, but working towards fluency
Why give kids sight words and study them?
It helps them build their fluency
A child reads accurately, but slowly, what should you do?
Give them repeated passages
Reading Comprehension Skills
- Comparing and contrasting
- Drawing conclusions
- Relating background knowledge
- Distinguishing between fact and opinion
- Finding the main idea, important facts, and supporting details
Words are omitted from a passage and students are required to fill in the blanks. This procedure is incredibly useful in reading instruction because it can be easily done by any teacher and provides valuable reading comprehension information.
Five Finger Rule
A student picks a book to determine if it's on their reading level. Each word they miss, they hold up a finger. Once they get to 5, stop.
What are the 2 parts of structural analysis? Define them.
Breaking apart syllables (coffee)
Suffixes and prefixes for meaning (preheat and reheat)
Teacher reads a book about a child's crazy day. She stops to make connections. What is she showing her student?
She is modeling to her students how to monitor their reading comprehension
How does spelling lead to reading comprehension?
Spelling improves automaticity which improves fluency which is a skill needed to develop reading comprehension.
Teacher wants the students to do an independent reading assignment. She wants to scaffold, what would she do for a pre-reading activity?
Review the headings and subheadings
If you want to assess a students receptive language, how would you?
Give a set of oral directions and see if they can follow
How do you get kids interested in reading and helping select a book?
Pick a book that their interested in and is also on their reading level
When would be appropriate to use whole group instruction?
When teaching new concepts
If a student is reading quickly and above grade level and making mistakes, what should you do?
Have them slow down and check for understanding
A kid can spell vocabulary words, understand how it's used, etc., but w/ quiz, can't match definition w/ word. Why?
They can use word in context, but not exact definition of words
Student having trouble reading words that have silent consonant combinations, what would be good approach to help?
compare/contrast between words that do/do not have silent constant combos like no and know
What is an activity that can boost children's vocabulary development?
Playing with other kids
In keeping with Pennsylvania's PreK-4 learning standards in language arts, what writing skill would be most appropriate to include in language arts instruction at the first-grade level?
Revising writing by adding details or missing information
A kindergarten teacher reads aloud a poem that contains alliteration in each line. The teacher reads the poem twice, each time emphasizing the alliteration. On the third reading, the teacher invites the children to repeat each line exactly as the teacher recited it. This activity is most effective in promoting the children's development in which area of emergent literacy?
Which of the following strategies would be most effective for a teacher to use as the introduction to a letter-formation lesson for a group of kindergarten students?
demonstrating to students how to form the target letter in the air while stating the motions and then repeating the process as the students imitate the teacher
A second-grade teacher is beginning an integrated content-area unit on farming. As an introduction to the unit, the teacher helps students brainstorm words related to the concept of farming and guides students in creating a semantic map with the words. This activity best illustrates a strategy targeting which of the following essential components of effective vocabulary instruction?
deepening and clarifying students' knowledge of known words
A second-grade teacher is planning to read aloud a story to the class and would like to use this activity to reinforce and build on students' literary analysis skills. Which of the following strategies would likely be most appropriate and effective in achieving this goal at this grade level?
guiding students to identify the main characters and major events in the story
A third-grade teacher would like to monitor students' progress in meeting reading fluency benchmarks. Which of the following assessment strategies would be most appropriate and effective for the teacher to use for this purpose?
measuring students' average rate and accuracy while they read aloud an unfamiliar grade-level passage
A fourth-grade teacher would like to promote students' comprehension and critical analysis of literary texts by helping them draw more effective conclusions. The teacher could best achieve this goal by providing the students with explicit instruction and guided practice in:
citing evidence from a text to support their responses to the text.
Once a week, a second-grade teacher conducts a fluency check with each student. The teacher has the student read aloud an unfamiliar, appropriate-level passage for one minute as the teacher notes errors on a separate copy of the passage. The teacher calculates the number of words the student read correctly during that minute, and both the teacher and the student maintain charts of the student's weekly progress. This type of activity primarily focuses on which of the following aspects of reading fluency?
At the beginning of an inquiry-based multidisciplinary unit on birds of the region, a first-grade teacher creates a display in the classroom of a variety of objects related to the topic (e.g., bird nests, feathers, an audio recording of birdsong, photographs and drawings of birds) and gives students a brief "tour" of the new objects. Which of the following strategies for incorporating the objects into instruction would be most effective for promoting the research skills of students at this developmental level?
having students describe, draw, and sort selected objects from the collection
Results from informal assessments indicate that a second-grade student who is a struggling reader still relies mostly on invented spellings when writing. Based on this evidence, which of the following types of interventions would best address the student's needs?
providing intensive instruction in complex phonics patterns
A teacher is planning instruction to promote four-year-olds' development of skills related to Pennsylvania's PreK-4 learning standard about reading, analyzing, and interpreting text. With children at this developmental level, which of the following approaches to a read-aloud activity would be most appropriate for the teacher to use to develop the children's conceptual understanding of fact and opinion?
helping the children tell one thing they learned from a nonfiction text
A first-grade teacher explains that he is going to read a story aloud and he wants students to consider how the story makes them feel. Afterward, he prompts the students to recall and discuss specific words and phrases the author used to evoke particular feelings. This oral language activity supports students' literacy development primarily by helping the students:
develop an awareness of a story's tone.
A group of primary-grade teachers is reviewing potential core instructional materials for teaching beginning-reading skills. The most important selection criteria for the teachers to consider would be to ensure that the materials:
are aligned with relevant state learning standards.
Which of the following words contains a diphthong?
A prekindergarten teacher regularly writes students' comments on chart paper during whole-class discussions and rereads the comments to the class. This practice supports young children's emergent literacy development primarily by promoting their:
awareness of the relationship between print and spoken language.
A third-grade student is having difficulty reading words and syllables that contain complex letter combinations, which is affecting her comprehension of grade-level texts. For example, the student reads the word stretch as [st] [rĕt] [ch] and the word pledge as [p] [lĕd] [guh]. Which of the following intervention strategies is likely to be most effective in addressing this student's reading difficulty and advancing her reading development?
providing the student with instruction and practice decoding consonant clusters as chunks
A second-grade student frequently makes errors such as reading the words taped as tapped, hoping as hopping, and shines as shins when reading aloud. Which of the following approaches to addressing the student's difficulty is likely to be most effective?
providing the student with explicit review and practice reading and spelling CVCe words that contain inflectional endings
A second-grade teacher is planning reading instruction at the beginning of the school year and would like to determine the entry-level skills of individual students in key areas of reading. Which of the following types of assessments would be most appropriate for the teacher to use to assess entering students' decoding skills?
an informal phonics inventory
A prekindergarten teacher helps students memorize a poem and recite it chorally. The teacher could best use this activity to build a foundation for which of the following literacy skills?
Which of the following activities would best help fourth graders apply their knowledge of oral language to promote their understanding of punctuation conventions used in writing?
reading their writing aloud, making note of pauses and intonation patterns
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