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the process of adjusting different elements of the vocal tract to shape the sounds of speech.

immobile articulators

elements of the vocal tract that are not moveable; teeth, hard palate, and nasal bones.

mobile articulators

elements of the vocal tract that are moveable; lips, tongue, soft palate, pharynx walls, and buccae.

mimetic muscles

facial muscles; called mimetic because they convey meaning in speech through "mimes" and also function to shape the oral and nasal cavities.


mammalian feature

face skin

keratinized epithelium

mucous membrane

non-keratinized epithelium

vermillion zone

sharp line between lip and face


substance that makes the skin of the lips transparent

functions of the lips

touch sensation, temperature sensation, sphincter to close mouth.

articulators for labial consonants

lips control airflow for some consonants.

external epithelium of cheeks

stratified squamous epithelium, keratinized

skin color

determined by pigments and blood flow


brown pigment


yellow/orange pigment

blood flow

gives red or flushed appearance

internal epithelium of cheeks

stratified squamous epithelium, mucous

buccal cavity

space between cheek and gums

oral cavity

in "U" shaped area. Bordered by dental arches.


ridges on surface of hard palate

anterior faucial pillar

membrane that sperates the oral cavity from the pharynx; palatoglossus muscle

posterior faucial pillar

a membrane posterior to palatine tonsils; palatopharyngeus muscle

salivary glands

secrete saliva to protect teeth and moisten oral cavity.

labial glands

inner surface of lips

molar glands

5 glands whose ducts open opposite the last molars.

parotid glands

glands that open opposite the last molar.

sublingual glands

gland located under the tongue

submandibular glands

glands located lateral below the mandible

labial frenula

connection between lips and gums

lingual frenulum

connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity

functions of lingual frenulum

mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), and sense of taste.


tip of tongue


sides of tongue


anterior sides and tip


posterior of tongue


region above gum line


at the gumline (exposed portion)


portion in the socket. Contained in alveolar process


hard outer covering (white)


inner layer of tooth (brown)

pulp cavity

contains blood vessels and nerves


substance that anchors the tooth to the bone.




flat, cutting/biting teeth


conical, stabbing teeth

premolars and molars

flat surfaces, grinding


proper alignment of upper and lower teeth


lower jaw reclusive


lower jaw protrusive

dental formulas

number of each type of tooth are present

medial surface

faces the midline

distal surface

faces away from midline

buccal surface

faces the cheek


known as juvenification; the retention of juvenile characteristics in an adult

corrugator effect

cause wrinkles in the face. Convey emotion and articulation.

temporomandibular joint

madubular fossa (temporal bone)+madibular condyle(mandible)


protrude lower jaw


retract lower jaw


circular action of the lower jaw (grinding action)


superior movement of the lower jaw


inferior movement of the lower jaw

joint capsule

connective tissue lining of the joint forming upper and lower joint cavities

synovial fluid

clear, thick, viscous fluid that lubricates the joint (prevents contact between bones)

paranasal sinuses

air spaces that develop during puberty; lighten bone, PCCE/mucous. Frontal, Maxillary, Spenoid, Ethmoid, Palatine(occasionally)

buccal cavity

space between the cheek and gums

oral cavity

space bordered by the teeth to the 1st faucial pillar

nasal cavity

space between the anterior and posterior nares (chocine); vestibule is anterior-most portion


space that extends from the internal nares to the esophagus, common space shared by digestive and respiratory systems


sphincter between mouth and external environment


subdivide the mouth into oral cavity and buccal cavity

external nares

(anterior nares)- exterior openings to the nose

internal nares

(posterior nares)-internal openings from the nasl cavity to the nasopharynx


soft palate that is a sphincter between the nasopharynx and oropharynx


membrane that marks the boundary of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx

olfactory nerve endings

columnar epithelium in the olfactory portion of the superior nasal cavity


space between internal nares and soft palate

eustachian tube

passageway that connects the nasopharynx and middle ear


lymphiod tissue in the roof of the masopharynx, paryngeal tonsil


space between soft palate and epiglottis

palatine tonsils

lymphoid tissue between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars


space between the epiglottis and esophagus

esophageal phase

stretch receptors in the esophagus activate smooth muscle that squeezes food to stomach. involuntary phase

buccal (oral) phase

tongue propels food from te oral cavity to the pharynx. voluntray phase

pharyngeal phase

stretch receptors in the pharynx are stimulated and signal the swallowing center to stimulate pharyngeal muscles. Pharyngeal muscles contract and propel food to the esophagus. involuntary phase

raise pitch

raise larynx+constrict pharynx

lower pitch

lower larynx+dilate pharynx

hard palate

maxilla+palatine bones

soft palate

skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane; also known as velum

palatal vault

deeply concave roof of the oral cavity

velopharyngeal port

opening between the nasopharynx and oropharynx


lymphatic tissue formed by connective tissue covering filled with lymphocytes; helps with immunity againest pathogens at important entry points for infections.

pharngeal tonsil (adenoids)

tonsil located posterior to the internal nares

tubal tonsils

located around the opening to the auditory (eustachian) tube

palatine tonsils

located between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars. tonsilar fascia

lingual tonsils

located at the root of the tongue


refining motor control in muscle movements for tongue placement, reaching for toys, etc.

broca's area

speech center

wernikies area

hearing center

Nasal Cavity Epithelium

Vestibule- STSE with mucous and superior respiratory epithelium PCCE

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