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99 terms

Anatomy of Articulation

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articulation
the process of adjusting different elements of the vocal tract to shape the sounds of speech.
immobile articulators
elements of the vocal tract that are not moveable; teeth, hard palate, and nasal bones.
mobile articulators
elements of the vocal tract that are moveable; lips, tongue, soft palate, pharynx walls, and buccae.
mimetic muscles
facial muscles; called mimetic because they convey meaning in speech through "mimes" and also function to shape the oral and nasal cavities.
lips
mammalian feature
face skin
keratinized epithelium
mucous membrane
non-keratinized epithelium
vermillion zone
sharp line between lip and face
eleiden
substance that makes the skin of the lips transparent
functions of the lips
touch sensation, temperature sensation, sphincter to close mouth.
articulators for labial consonants
lips control airflow for some consonants.
external epithelium of cheeks
stratified squamous epithelium, keratinized
skin color
determined by pigments and blood flow
melanin
brown pigment
carotene
yellow/orange pigment
blood flow
gives red or flushed appearance
internal epithelium of cheeks
stratified squamous epithelium, mucous
buccal cavity
space between cheek and gums
oral cavity
in "U" shaped area. Bordered by dental arches.
rugae
ridges on surface of hard palate
anterior faucial pillar
membrane that sperates the oral cavity from the pharynx; palatoglossus muscle
posterior faucial pillar
a membrane posterior to palatine tonsils; palatopharyngeus muscle
salivary glands
secrete saliva to protect teeth and moisten oral cavity.
labial glands
inner surface of lips
molar glands
5 glands whose ducts open opposite the last molars.
parotid glands
glands that open opposite the last molar.
sublingual glands
gland located under the tongue
submandibular glands
glands located lateral below the mandible
labial frenula
connection between lips and gums
lingual frenulum
connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity
functions of lingual frenulum
mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), and sense of taste.
sweet
tip of tongue
sour
sides of tongue
salty
anterior sides and tip
bitter
posterior of tongue
crown
region above gum line
neck
at the gumline (exposed portion)
root
portion in the socket. Contained in alveolar process
enamel
hard outer covering (white)
dentin
inner layer of tooth (brown)
pulp cavity
contains blood vessels and nerves
cementum
substance that anchors the tooth to the bone.
caries
cavities
incisors
flat, cutting/biting teeth
canines
conical, stabbing teeth
premolars and molars
flat surfaces, grinding
neutroclusion
proper alignment of upper and lower teeth
distocclusion
lower jaw reclusive
meisocclusion
lower jaw protrusive
dental formulas
number of each type of tooth are present
medial surface
faces the midline
distal surface
faces away from midline
buccal surface
faces the cheek
paedogenesis
known as juvenification; the retention of juvenile characteristics in an adult
corrugator effect
cause wrinkles in the face. Convey emotion and articulation.
temporomandibular joint
madubular fossa (temporal bone)+madibular condyle(mandible)
protraction
protrude lower jaw
retraction
retract lower jaw
rotation
circular action of the lower jaw (grinding action)
elevation
superior movement of the lower jaw
depression
inferior movement of the lower jaw
joint capsule
connective tissue lining of the joint forming upper and lower joint cavities
synovial fluid
clear, thick, viscous fluid that lubricates the joint (prevents contact between bones)
paranasal sinuses
air spaces that develop during puberty; lighten bone, PCCE/mucous. Frontal, Maxillary, Spenoid, Ethmoid, Palatine(occasionally)
buccal cavity
space between the cheek and gums
oral cavity
space bordered by the teeth to the 1st faucial pillar
nasal cavity
space between the anterior and posterior nares (chocine); vestibule is anterior-most portion
pharynx
space that extends from the internal nares to the esophagus, common space shared by digestive and respiratory systems
lips
sphincter between mouth and external environment
teeth
subdivide the mouth into oral cavity and buccal cavity
external nares
(anterior nares)- exterior openings to the nose
internal nares
(posterior nares)-internal openings from the nasl cavity to the nasopharynx
velum
soft palate that is a sphincter between the nasopharynx and oropharynx
epiglottis
membrane that marks the boundary of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx
olfactory nerve endings
columnar epithelium in the olfactory portion of the superior nasal cavity
nasopharynx
space between internal nares and soft palate
eustachian tube
passageway that connects the nasopharynx and middle ear
adenoids
lymphiod tissue in the roof of the masopharynx, paryngeal tonsil
oropharynx
space between soft palate and epiglottis
palatine tonsils
lymphoid tissue between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars
laryngopharynx
space between the epiglottis and esophagus
esophageal phase
stretch receptors in the esophagus activate smooth muscle that squeezes food to stomach. involuntary phase
buccal (oral) phase
tongue propels food from te oral cavity to the pharynx. voluntray phase
pharyngeal phase
stretch receptors in the pharynx are stimulated and signal the swallowing center to stimulate pharyngeal muscles. Pharyngeal muscles contract and propel food to the esophagus. involuntary phase
raise pitch
raise larynx+constrict pharynx
lower pitch
lower larynx+dilate pharynx
hard palate
maxilla+palatine bones
soft palate
skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane; also known as velum
palatal vault
deeply concave roof of the oral cavity
velopharyngeal port
opening between the nasopharynx and oropharynx
tonsils
lymphatic tissue formed by connective tissue covering filled with lymphocytes; helps with immunity againest pathogens at important entry points for infections.
pharngeal tonsil (adenoids)
tonsil located posterior to the internal nares
tubal tonsils
located around the opening to the auditory (eustachian) tube
palatine tonsils
located between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars. tonsilar fascia
lingual tonsils
located at the root of the tongue
differentiation
refining motor control in muscle movements for tongue placement, reaching for toys, etc.
broca's area
speech center
wernikies area
hearing center
Nasal Cavity Epithelium
Vestibule- STSE with mucous and superior respiratory epithelium PCCE