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A&P Chapter 1
Terms in this set (32)
Name and briefly describe the three main subdivisions of anatomy
1. gross anatomy or macroscopic (can see with the naked eye)
2. microscopic (need microscope to see)
3. developmental (embryology-before birth)
Briefly explain the subdivisions of gross anatomy
1. regional (regions of the body)
2. systemic (certain body systems)
3. surface (can see from the outside)
Briefly explain the subdivisions of microscopic anatomy
1. cytology (study of cells)
2. histology (study of tissues)
What is "physiology"?
-function of the body's structural machinery
-how the body works
Briefly explain the three major concepts of anatomy and physiology
1. complementarity of form and function (A&P go together, one doesn't make sense without the other)
1. homeostasis (stability of internal environment)
3. hierarchy of organization (simplest (chemical) to complex (organismal) levels)
What are the two compartments of the internal environment?
intracellular and extracellular compartments
Explain how negative feedback systems work. How is this related to homeostasis?
-response is in opposite direction of disturbance
-necessary for maintaining stability
Explain how positive feedback systems work. How is this related to homeostasis?
-response is in same direction as disturbance
-allows rapid changes (sometimes necessary for homeostasis)
Name some examples of negative feedback.
Name some examples of positive feedback.
-action potentials (nerve and muscle cells)
What are the 6 levels in the hierarchy of structural organization?
5. organ system
What are the main components and functions of the integumentary system?
-Forms external body covering
-Protects deeper tissues from injury
-Synthesizes vitamin D
-Site of cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors
-Sweat and oil glands
-Hair and nails (extensions of the skin)
-Controls body temp (b/c skin contains many blood vessels)
What are the main components and functions of the skeletal system?
-Protects and supports body organs
-Provides a framework the muscles use for movement
-Blood cells formed within bones (in bone marrow)
-Stores minerals (calcium, phosphate)
What are the main components and the functions of the muscular system?
-Allows manipulation of the environment
What are the main components and functions of the nervous system?
-Fast-acting control system of the bost
-Responds to internal and external change by activating appropriate muscles and glands
-Uses a combination of electrical and chemical methods
What are the main components and functions of the endocrine system?
-Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
-Chemical messages that affect cells in the body- hormones
What are the main components and functions of the cardiovascular system?
-Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, CO2, nutrients, wastes, heat (thermal energy), etc.
-The heart pumps blood (circulates blood throughout the body)
What are the main components and functions of the lymphatic system?
-Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
-Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
-Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity
-Immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body
-Eventually returns to cardiovascular system (ends up in venous circulation)
What are the main components and functions of the respiratory system?
-Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
-Gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs (O2, CO2)
What are the main components and functions of the digestive system?
-Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
-Indigestible foodstuff are eliminated as feces
What are the main components and functions of the urinary system?
-Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body (converted to urea)
-Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance (pH) of the blood
-Kidneys regulate blood pressure (critical for cardiovascular system)
What are the main components and functions of the reproductive system?
Overall function is production of offspring
Why is the classification/division of organ systems somewhat arbitrary?
all of the organ systems overlap and rely on each other; no clear divisions
atoms combined to form molecules
cells are made of molecules
consists of similar types of cells (4 main tissues are epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous)
made up of different types of tissues (i.e. blood vessels- all 4 types)
organ system level
different organs work closely together (i.e. cardiovascular: heart, vessels)
made up of the organ systems
male reproductive system
-Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone)
-Ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract
female reproductive system
-Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
-Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
-Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn
How is the integumentary system related to evolution and natural selection?
-skin color: tradeoff between protection from folic acid breakdown and vitamin D deficiency causes different colors
-goosebumps: vestigial response to cold and stress (useful for animals, neither helps nor harms humans)
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