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When did seed plants appear?


When did gymnosperms and angiosperms appear?


-Cambrian explosion, diversification of plant and animals, Devonian period , seed plants appear, radiation of reptiles


Rise and radiation of angiosperms, mammals, primates, and human evolution

protection and dispersal

What are the two main types of land adaptations of seeds?

reduction of gametophyte, seeds, heterospory, pollen, ovules

What are the 5 adaptations contributing to the success of seed plants as terrestrial organisms?

provides an embryo and food supply surrounded by protective coat

Why are seed an adaptation to living on land?

enhanced the ability of plants to survive and reproduce in diverse, terrestrial and dry environments

What is the importance of the evolution of seed production?

seeds are multicellular, more resistant, also has food supply and protective coat

What are advantages of seeds over spores?

no need for flagellated sperm

What is the advantage of pollen?

double fertilization

What is a unique shared derived character trait of angiosperm?

double fertilization

The pollen tube discharges two sperm cell- one sperm fertilizes the egg- one sperm fuses with the female gametophyte producing a triploid cell develops into endosperm that nourishes developing embryo


Do plants with dicot anatomy form a monophyletic group?

eudicots and monocots

The magnoliids are more closely related to?


one cotyledon, parallel veins, vascular tissue scattered, fibrous root system, pollen grain with one opening, flowers arranged in three


two cotyledon, netted veins, vascular tissue arranged in a ring, taproot root system, pollen grain with three openings, flowers arranged in multiples of four or five


What is the ecological relationship between angiosperm and animals?


ameoba with filopodia, unicellular, feed on algae and bacteria

chitin, hyphae, mycelium, heterotrophic absorption, dominant haploid stage

What are traits useful for differentiating plants, animals, and fungi?

hyphae, mycelium, heterotrophic absorption

What are unique shared derived traits of fungi?

absorption area

Maximized surface area in mycelium increases?


How do fungi acquire their food?


What do fungi secrete to digest food outside its body to simpler compounds that it can absorb?


Has sexual reproduction evolved multiple times?


What group of fungi evolved diverged early in fungal evolution?


Chytrids are unique among fungi?

karygamy and meiosis

What occurs in the zygosporangium in Zygomycetes?


What are the largest groups of fungi?

decomposers and recyclers, antibiotics, and food

What is the commercial importance of Fungi?


What is the sister taxa of Kingdom Animalia?

collared flagellate, heterotrophic, free living and sessile, unicellular and some colonial

What are characteristics of Choanoflagellates?

550 mya

When did the first animal fossils appear?

Cambrian Explosion

The increase of atmospheric oxygen resulted in a more active metabolism which resulted in?

embryonic development of tissues, no cell walls, nervous and muscle tissues, Hox genes

A shared derived traits in animals?

multicellular, digest internally, sexual reproduction, embryonic development of tissues, no cell walls, nervous and muscle tissues, Hox genes

What are characteristic of animals?

Tissues, Body symmetry, Germ layers,Body cavity, Embryological development,

The traditional animal phylogeny is based on shared derived anatomical traits?


Radial symmetry reflects what kind of lifestyle?


Bilateral symmetry reflects what kind of lifestyle?

outer surface

The ectoderm gives rise to....

digestive tracts and some organs

The endoderm gives rise to...

muscle and other organs

The mesoderm gives rise to...

Platyhelminthes and Acoela

Which phyla are acoelomates?

Rotifera and Nematoda

Which phyla are pseudocoelomates?

cushioning, hydrostatic skeleton, space

What are the functions of the Coelom?

Gastrula stage

When does the coelom form?

Lophotrochozoa and Ecydsozoa

Protostomia splits into two branches?


lack true tissue, sedentary aquatic, suspension feeders, hermaphrodites


bio-luminescent, major component of plankton


same body plan for 50 mya, carnivores, tissues and simple nerves but no brain, asexual and sexual

corals, jellies, hydras, sea anemones

The Cnidaria consist of...


used to Platyhelminthes, simple nervous system but no true brain, diverged before three main bilaterian clades, hermaphrodites


(flatworms) • 20,000 spp!
• flukes, planarians and tapeworms
• central nervous system = ganglia
• acoelomate
• no circulatory system
• lots of parasites (like flukes and tapeworms)
• sexual and asexual (fission and some complex life cycles)


1,800 spp!
• tiny 0.05 - 2 mm
• feed on microorganisms
• specialized organ system and digestive tract
• pseudocoelomate


females produce offspring from unfertilized
eggs (a form of asexual reproduction)

Ectoprocts and Brachipods

The Lophophorates consist of which phyla?


• 5,000 spp
• have lophophores
• sessile (no distinct head)
• coelomate
• all aquatic


coelomates, open circulatory system, separate sexes or hermaphrodite, trochophore larvae, aquatic

foot, visceral mass, mantle, radula

What are the four main body parts of the phylum Mollusca?

visceral mass

contains internal organs


over visceral mass and often secretes a shell


rasping organ to scrape food (some groups)


foot acts like a suction cup, scrape algae with radula


(snails and slugs) - torsion- radula adapted for grazing or predation, foot adapted to move


clams, oysters, scallop, and mussels- two sided shell- lost cephalation -lost radula


squids, octopuses, chambered nautiluses- active predators, mantle reduced or lost, closed circulatory system


• 16,000 spp
• segmented worms
• earthworms, leeches
• coelomates
• closed circulatory
• mostly aquatic / some


• 25,000 spp
• roundworms (not segmented)
• found everywhere! - aquatic, soil, plant tissues, animal
tissues - predatory, decomposers, parasites
• pseudocoelom
• no circulatory system (absorption!)
• separate sexes
• lots of parasites (like heartworm)


coelomates with open circulatory systems
• segmented bodies
• hard exoskeleton (chitin)
• jointed appendages
• well developed sensory organs
• most with complex internal organs


• 7,000 spp
• marine
• sessile or slow moving
• unique water vascular system
and tube feet
• sexual reproduction
• no brains
• filter feeders, predators,

notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, muscular post anal tail

What are the four derived character states of Chordates?


• A longitudinal, flexible rod located between the
digestive tube and the nerve cord
• Provides skeletal support and a structure for muscles to
work against
• In most vertebrates a jointed skeleton develops around
the ancestral notochord

dorsal, hollow nerve cord

•Develops in the vertebrate embryo from a plate of ectoderm that rolls
into a tube dorsal to the notochord
• In other animals the nerve cords are solid and usually ventral
• Develops into the central nervous system = brain and spinal cord

muscular post anal tail

non chordates have a digestive tract that extends nearly the whole length of the body and do not have a post anal tail, helps aquatic species swim, reduced during development in many groups


aquatic-suspension feeders-keep characteristics of chordate body plan as adults


most sessile, planktonic, colonial, hermaphroditic

brain, eyes, skull, two cluster of Hox genes, neural crest, duplicated families, pharyngeal clefts, two chambered heart

What are shared derived traits for Craniates?

teeth, bones and cartilage of skull, inner layer of skin, neurons, sensory capsules

What does the neural crest give rise to craniate structures?


no vertebrae, cartilaginous cranium, marine scavenders


• Only 35 species
• Suspension-feeding larvae
(like lancelets)
• Adults parasitic
• No real jaw
• Cartilage skeleton
- including vertebrae

gametophyte is protected and nourished from environmental stresses

Why is the reduction of the gametophyte important advantage for terrestrial living?

microspores and megaspores

What is the importance of heterospory in seed plants?

fruit and flowers

What are the shared derived traits of Angiosperms?

early Mesozoic

When did the major radiation of gymnosperms occur?

basal angiosperms, Magnoliids, Eudicots

What are plants that are part of the Dicot group?

septate and coenocytic

What are the two types of hyphae in Fungi?


Do fungal hyphae have cell walls?


What are the cell walls of fungi made of ?

haploid dominant, produce huge number of spores

What is reproduction of Fungi?


What is a key innovation of Fungi that allowed that phyla to diversify?

saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic symbiont

What are the ecological lifestyles of Fungi?


union of cytoplasm


fusion of the nuclei


What restores the haploid condition in Fungi?


What is the only diploid stage in Fungus?


What does plasmogamy produce in the Zygomycetes?


mycorrhizae and reproduce asexually


Where are spores produced in the Ascomycetes?

truffles, cup fungi, morel

Examples of Ascomycetes...

mushrooms, shelf fungi, stinkhorn

Examples of Basidiocarps...

700-900 mya

When did the oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells appear?

ecological. geological, and genetic causes

What are three hypothesis for the Cambrian explosion?

the emergence of predator prey relationships

Explain the ecological cause of the Cambrian explosion?

360 mya

When did vertebrates colonize land? (amphibians and amniotes=reptiles)


What stage in embryonic development does a series of mitotic division with no cell growth occur?


What stage in embryonic development is there a multicellular hollow ball with specific regions that give rise to specific components?


What stage in embryonic development do layers of embryonic tissues are produced that will develop into adult body parts?

Hox genes

special regulatory genes that control the transformation of a zygote to a specific animal.That is they control the 'fate' of embryonic cells


a group whose members share key biological features


a group that includes and ancestral species and all of its descendants


Bilateral symmetry is associated with...

Cnidaria and Ctenophora

What phyla have radial symmetry and are diploblastic?


coelom is lined by mesoderm on one side and endoderm on the other

siphon and part of tentacles

In the class Cephalopods, the foot was modified into....


What is reduced or lost in Cephalopods?

less segmentation, fused segments, specialized appendages, variation from segment to segment

What is the Arthropod Evolution

spiders, scorpions, mites, horseshoe crabs

Examples of Chelicerae


How many times did flight evolve in Insects?

extension of the cuticle

How did wing evolve?


vertebrates with jaws

lobed fin fishes

Which evolved first ray fin fishes or lobed fin fishes?


The Devonian Period was the Age of...

ossified exoskeleton, maneuverable swimmers, lungs or lung derivatives, flattened bony scales

What are the characteristics of bony fishes?


What was the lobed fins of fishes adapted for what?

3 lineages

How many lineages survive today of lobed fin fishes?

four feet, separation of head, modification of pelvis for walking, loss of gills, ear drum

Shared derived traits of tetrapods?

reptiles and mammals

What phyla are considered he Amniotes?

amphibians reptiles mammals

What phyla are considered the Tetrapods?

coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals

What phyla are considered the Lobed-Fin?

rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals

What phyla are considered the Osteichthyes?

sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals

What phyla are considered the Gnathostomes?

lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals

What phyla are considered the Vertebrates?

hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes,

What phyla are considered the Craniates?

predators, cartilaginous skeletons

What are characteristics of the phyla Condrichthyes?

Shared derived trait because the mineralized skeleton was a characteristic of its ancestor

Is Cartilaginous skeleton a ancestral or derived trait in Condrichthyes?


Sharks that lay eggs that hatch outside the body.


Sharks that retain egg in the body, then hatch in uterus.


Sharks that provide nutrients through a placenta to the developing embryo

all animals share a common ancestor, sponges are basal animals, eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissue,most animals belong to the clade Bilateria, Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia

What are the 5 points of agreement between the morphological and molecular trees?

Conodonts and jawless armored vertebrates

What were the early vertebrates?

Large eyes and mineralized mouth

Characteristics of Conodont...

armored with mineralized bones, muscular pharynx, inner ear, paired fins

Characteristics of jawless armored vertebrates

microsporangium, microspore, pollen grain, male gametophyte, sperm

Outline the route from microsporangium to sperm.

male gametophyte

Pollen grain contain...


Pollen grains are covered with.....

ovule, megasporangium, megaspore, female gametophyte, egg

Outline the route from ovule to the egg....

Contains the female gametophyte

Define ovule


Where does fertilization occur in the Gymnosperms....


In Gymnosperms, the whole ovule develops into the ....

They are a group of Gymnosperms that had flower like structures

What are the Bennettitales?

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