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164 terms

Biology 112 Test 2

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Carboniferous
When did seed plants appear?
Carboniferous
When did gymnosperms and angiosperms appear?
Paleozoic
-Cambrian explosion, diversification of plant and animals, Devonian period , seed plants appear, radiation of reptiles
Cenozoic
Rise and radiation of angiosperms, mammals, primates, and human evolution
protection and dispersal
What are the two main types of land adaptations of seeds?
reduction of gametophyte, seeds, heterospory, pollen, ovules
What are the 5 adaptations contributing to the success of seed plants as terrestrial organisms?
provides an embryo and food supply surrounded by protective coat
Why are seed an adaptation to living on land?
enhanced the ability of plants to survive and reproduce in diverse, terrestrial and dry environments
What is the importance of the evolution of seed production?
seeds are multicellular, more resistant, also has food supply and protective coat
What are advantages of seeds over spores?
no need for flagellated sperm
What is the advantage of pollen?
double fertilization
What is a unique shared derived character trait of angiosperm?
double fertilization
The pollen tube discharges two sperm cell- one sperm fertilizes the egg- one sperm fuses with the female gametophyte producing a triploid cell develops into endosperm that nourishes developing embryo
no
Do plants with dicot anatomy form a monophyletic group?
eudicots and monocots
The magnoliids are more closely related to?
monocots
one cotyledon, parallel veins, vascular tissue scattered, fibrous root system, pollen grain with one opening, flowers arranged in three
eudicots
two cotyledon, netted veins, vascular tissue arranged in a ring, taproot root system, pollen grain with three openings, flowers arranged in multiples of four or five
coevolution
What is the ecological relationship between angiosperm and animals?
nucleariids
ameoba with filopodia, unicellular, feed on algae and bacteria
chitin, hyphae, mycelium, heterotrophic absorption, dominant haploid stage
What are traits useful for differentiating plants, animals, and fungi?
hyphae, mycelium, heterotrophic absorption
What are unique shared derived traits of fungi?
absorption area
Maximized surface area in mycelium increases?
absorption
How do fungi acquire their food?
exoenzymes
What do fungi secrete to digest food outside its body to simpler compounds that it can absorb?
yes
Has sexual reproduction evolved multiple times?
Chytrids
What group of fungi evolved diverged early in fungal evolution?
zoospores
Chytrids are unique among fungi?
karygamy and meiosis
What occurs in the zygosporangium in Zygomycetes?
Ascomycetes
What are the largest groups of fungi?
decomposers and recyclers, antibiotics, and food
What is the commercial importance of Fungi?
choanoflagellates
What is the sister taxa of Kingdom Animalia?
collared flagellate, heterotrophic, free living and sessile, unicellular and some colonial
What are characteristics of Choanoflagellates?
550 mya
When did the first animal fossils appear?
Cambrian Explosion
The increase of atmospheric oxygen resulted in a more active metabolism which resulted in?
embryonic development of tissues, no cell walls, nervous and muscle tissues, Hox genes
A shared derived traits in animals?
multicellular, digest internally, sexual reproduction, embryonic development of tissues, no cell walls, nervous and muscle tissues, Hox genes
What are characteristic of animals?
Tissues, Body symmetry, Germ layers,Body cavity, Embryological development,
The traditional animal phylogeny is based on shared derived anatomical traits?
sessile
Radial symmetry reflects what kind of lifestyle?
active
Bilateral symmetry reflects what kind of lifestyle?
outer surface
The ectoderm gives rise to....
digestive tracts and some organs
The endoderm gives rise to...
muscle and other organs
The mesoderm gives rise to...
Platyhelminthes and Acoela
Which phyla are acoelomates?
Rotifera and Nematoda
Which phyla are pseudocoelomates?
cushioning, hydrostatic skeleton, space
What are the functions of the Coelom?
Gastrula stage
When does the coelom form?
Lophotrochozoa and Ecydsozoa
Protostomia splits into two branches?
Sponges
lack true tissue, sedentary aquatic, suspension feeders, hermaphrodites
Ctenophora
bio-luminescent, major component of plankton
Cnidaria
same body plan for 50 mya, carnivores, tissues and simple nerves but no brain, asexual and sexual
corals, jellies, hydras, sea anemones
The Cnidaria consist of...
Acoela
used to Platyhelminthes, simple nervous system but no true brain, diverged before three main bilaterian clades, hermaphrodites
Platyhelminthes
(flatworms) • 20,000 spp!
• flukes, planarians and tapeworms
• central nervous system = ganglia
• acoelomate
• no circulatory system
• lots of parasites (like flukes and tapeworms)
• sexual and asexual (fission and some complex life cycles)
Rotifera
1,800 spp!
• tiny 0.05 - 2 mm
• feed on microorganisms
• specialized organ system and digestive tract
• pseudocoelomate
parthenogenesis
females produce offspring from unfertilized
eggs (a form of asexual reproduction)
Ectoprocts and Brachipods
The Lophophorates consist of which phyla?
Lophophorates
• 5,000 spp
• have lophophores
• sessile (no distinct head)
• coelomate
• all aquatic
Mollusca
coelomates, open circulatory system, separate sexes or hermaphrodite, trochophore larvae, aquatic
foot, visceral mass, mantle, radula
What are the four main body parts of the phylum Mollusca?
visceral mass
contains internal organs
mantle
over visceral mass and often secretes a shell
radula
rasping organ to scrape food (some groups)
Chitons
foot acts like a suction cup, scrape algae with radula
Gastropods
(snails and slugs) - torsion- radula adapted for grazing or predation, foot adapted to move
Bivalves
clams, oysters, scallop, and mussels- two sided shell- lost cephalation -lost radula
Cephalopods
squids, octopuses, chambered nautiluses- active predators, mantle reduced or lost, closed circulatory system
Annelida
• 16,000 spp
• segmented worms
• earthworms, leeches
• coelomates
• closed circulatory
systems
• mostly aquatic / some
terrestrial
Nematoda
• 25,000 spp
• roundworms (not segmented)
• found everywhere! - aquatic, soil, plant tissues, animal
tissues - predatory, decomposers, parasites
• pseudocoelom
• no circulatory system (absorption!)
• separate sexes
• lots of parasites (like heartworm)
Arthropoda
coelomates with open circulatory systems
• segmented bodies
• hard exoskeleton (chitin)
• jointed appendages
• well developed sensory organs
• most with complex internal organs
Echinoderms
• 7,000 spp
• marine
• sessile or slow moving
• unique water vascular system
and tube feet
• sexual reproduction
• no brains
• filter feeders, predators,
grazers
notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, muscular post anal tail
What are the four derived character states of Chordates?
notochord
• A longitudinal, flexible rod located between the
digestive tube and the nerve cord
• Provides skeletal support and a structure for muscles to
work against
• In most vertebrates a jointed skeleton develops around
the ancestral notochord
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
•Develops in the vertebrate embryo from a plate of ectoderm that rolls
into a tube dorsal to the notochord
• In other animals the nerve cords are solid and usually ventral
• Develops into the central nervous system = brain and spinal cord
muscular post anal tail
non chordates have a digestive tract that extends nearly the whole length of the body and do not have a post anal tail, helps aquatic species swim, reduced during development in many groups
Lancelot
aquatic-suspension feeders-keep characteristics of chordate body plan as adults
Tunicates
most sessile, planktonic, colonial, hermaphroditic
brain, eyes, skull, two cluster of Hox genes, neural crest, duplicated families, pharyngeal clefts, two chambered heart
What are shared derived traits for Craniates?
teeth, bones and cartilage of skull, inner layer of skin, neurons, sensory capsules
What does the neural crest give rise to craniate structures?
Hagfish
no vertebrae, cartilaginous cranium, marine scavenders
Lamprey
• Only 35 species
• Suspension-feeding larvae
(like lancelets)
• Adults parasitic
• No real jaw
• Cartilage skeleton
- including vertebrae
gametophyte is protected and nourished from environmental stresses
Why is the reduction of the gametophyte important advantage for terrestrial living?
microspores and megaspores
What is the importance of heterospory in seed plants?
fruit and flowers
What are the shared derived traits of Angiosperms?
early Mesozoic
When did the major radiation of gymnosperms occur?
basal angiosperms, Magnoliids, Eudicots
What are plants that are part of the Dicot group?
septate and coenocytic
What are the two types of hyphae in Fungi?
yes
Do fungal hyphae have cell walls?
chitin
What are the cell walls of fungi made of ?
haploid dominant, produce huge number of spores
What is reproduction of Fungi?
mycelium
What is a key innovation of Fungi that allowed that phyla to diversify?
saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic symbiont
What are the ecological lifestyles of Fungi?
plasmogamy
union of cytoplasm
karygamy
fusion of the nuclei
meiosis
What restores the haploid condition in Fungi?
Zygote
What is the only diploid stage in Fungus?
Zygosporangium
What does plasmogamy produce in the Zygomycetes?
Glomeromycetes
mycorrhizae and reproduce asexually
asci
Where are spores produced in the Ascomycetes?
truffles, cup fungi, morel
Examples of Ascomycetes...
mushrooms, shelf fungi, stinkhorn
Examples of Basidiocarps...
700-900 mya
When did the oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells appear?
ecological. geological, and genetic causes
What are three hypothesis for the Cambrian explosion?
the emergence of predator prey relationships
Explain the ecological cause of the Cambrian explosion?
360 mya
When did vertebrates colonize land? (amphibians and amniotes=reptiles)
cleavage
What stage in embryonic development does a series of mitotic division with no cell growth occur?
blastula
What stage in embryonic development is there a multicellular hollow ball with specific regions that give rise to specific components?
gastrulation
What stage in embryonic development do layers of embryonic tissues are produced that will develop into adult body parts?
Hox genes
special regulatory genes that control the transformation of a zygote to a specific animal.That is they control the 'fate' of embryonic cells
grade
a group whose members share key biological features
clade
a group that includes and ancestral species and all of its descendants
cephalization
Bilateral symmetry is associated with...
Cnidaria and Ctenophora
What phyla have radial symmetry and are diploblastic?
pseudocoelomate
coelom is lined by mesoderm on one side and endoderm on the other
siphon and part of tentacles
In the class Cephalopods, the foot was modified into....
mantle
What is reduced or lost in Cephalopods?
less segmentation, fused segments, specialized appendages, variation from segment to segment
What is the Arthropod Evolution
spiders, scorpions, mites, horseshoe crabs
Examples of Chelicerae
once
How many times did flight evolve in Insects?
extension of the cuticle
How did wing evolve?
Gnathostomes
vertebrates with jaws
lobed fin fishes
Which evolved first ray fin fishes or lobed fin fishes?
fishes
The Devonian Period was the Age of...
ossified exoskeleton, maneuverable swimmers, lungs or lung derivatives, flattened bony scales
What are the characteristics of bony fishes?
walking
What was the lobed fins of fishes adapted for what?
3 lineages
How many lineages survive today of lobed fin fishes?
four feet, separation of head, modification of pelvis for walking, loss of gills, ear drum
Shared derived traits of tetrapods?
reptiles and mammals
What phyla are considered he Amniotes?
amphibians reptiles mammals
What phyla are considered the Tetrapods?
coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Lobed-Fin?
rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Osteichthyes?
sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Gnathostomes?
lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Vertebrates?
hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes,
What phyla are considered the Craniates?
predators, cartilaginous skeletons
What are characteristics of the phyla Condrichthyes?
Shared derived trait because the mineralized skeleton was a characteristic of its ancestor
Is Cartilaginous skeleton a ancestral or derived trait in Condrichthyes?
oviparous
Sharks that lay eggs that hatch outside the body.
ovoviviparous
Sharks that retain egg in the body, then hatch in uterus.
viviparous
Sharks that provide nutrients through a placenta to the developing embryo
all animals share a common ancestor, sponges are basal animals, eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissue,most animals belong to the clade Bilateria, Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
What are the 5 points of agreement between the morphological and molecular trees?
Conodonts and jawless armored vertebrates
What were the early vertebrates?
Large eyes and mineralized mouth
Characteristics of Conodont...
armored with mineralized bones, muscular pharynx, inner ear, paired fins
Characteristics of jawless armored vertebrates
microsporangium, microspore, pollen grain, male gametophyte, sperm
Outline the route from microsporangium to sperm.
male gametophyte
Pollen grain contain...
sporopollenin
Pollen grains are covered with.....
ovule, megasporangium, megaspore, female gametophyte, egg
Outline the route from ovule to the egg....
Contains the female gametophyte
Define ovule
ovule
Where does fertilization occur in the Gymnosperms....
seed
In Gymnosperms, the whole ovule develops into the ....
They are a group of Gymnosperms that had flower like structures
What are the Bennettitales?
Amborella, Water Lilies, Star anise
What Angiosperms are considered the Basal Angiosperm>
Choanoflagellates
What is the sister taxa of Animals?
Nucleariids
What is the sister taxa of Fungi?
flagellated spores
What do Chytrids have that other Fungi do not?
not flagellated, multicellular
Are Fungi flagellated....multicellular or unicellular?
septate hyphae
pores allow cytoplasm, nuclei, ribosomes, mitochondria can pass through
coenocytic hyphae
similar to slime molds..mitosis without cytokinesis
heterokaryotic
different nuclei...the fused mycelium contain coexisting genetically different nuclei- result of plasmogamy
dikaryotic
mycelium has two nuclei per cell...from different parents
pheromones
How do fungi find each other to reproduce?
bilateral symmetry and cephalization
What two shared derived traits are to the clade eumentozoa?
All animals share common ancestor, sponges basal, eumetozoa, bilateria, dueterostome
What are the points of agreements between the molecular and traditional phylogenetic tree?
amoebocytes
What digests food in Sponges?
choanocytes
What captures food for Sponges?
obligate mutualism
Corals in the Phyla Cnidaria are