same body plan for 50 mya, carnivores, tissues and simple nerves but no brain, asexual and sexual
corals, jellies, hydras, sea anemones
The Cnidaria consist of...
used to Platyhelminthes, simple nervous system but no true brain, diverged before three main bilaterian clades, hermaphrodites
(flatworms) • 20,000 spp! • flukes, planarians and tapeworms • central nervous system = ganglia • acoelomate • no circulatory system • lots of parasites (like flukes and tapeworms) • sexual and asexual (fission and some complex life cycles)
1,800 spp! • tiny 0.05 - 2 mm • feed on microorganisms • specialized organ system and digestive tract • pseudocoelomate
females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs (a form of asexual reproduction)
Ectoprocts and Brachipods
The Lophophorates consist of which phyla?
• 5,000 spp • have lophophores • sessile (no distinct head) • coelomate • all aquatic
coelomates, open circulatory system, separate sexes or hermaphrodite, trochophore larvae, aquatic
foot, visceral mass, mantle, radula
What are the four main body parts of the phylum Mollusca?
contains internal organs
over visceral mass and often secretes a shell
rasping organ to scrape food (some groups)
foot acts like a suction cup, scrape algae with radula
(snails and slugs) - torsion- radula adapted for grazing or predation, foot adapted to move
clams, oysters, scallop, and mussels- two sided shell- lost cephalation -lost radula
squids, octopuses, chambered nautiluses- active predators, mantle reduced or lost, closed circulatory system
• 25,000 spp • roundworms (not segmented) • found everywhere! - aquatic, soil, plant tissues, animal tissues - predatory, decomposers, parasites • pseudocoelom • no circulatory system (absorption!) • separate sexes • lots of parasites (like heartworm)
coelomates with open circulatory systems • segmented bodies • hard exoskeleton (chitin) • jointed appendages • well developed sensory organs • most with complex internal organs
• 7,000 spp • marine • sessile or slow moving • unique water vascular system and tube feet • sexual reproduction • no brains • filter feeders, predators, grazers
notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, muscular post anal tail
What are the four derived character states of Chordates?
• A longitudinal, flexible rod located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord • Provides skeletal support and a structure for muscles to work against • In most vertebrates a jointed skeleton develops around the ancestral notochord
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
•Develops in the vertebrate embryo from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to the notochord • In other animals the nerve cords are solid and usually ventral • Develops into the central nervous system = brain and spinal cord
muscular post anal tail
non chordates have a digestive tract that extends nearly the whole length of the body and do not have a post anal tail, helps aquatic species swim, reduced during development in many groups
aquatic-suspension feeders-keep characteristics of chordate body plan as adults
most sessile, planktonic, colonial, hermaphroditic
brain, eyes, skull, two cluster of Hox genes, neural crest, duplicated families, pharyngeal clefts, two chambered heart
What are shared derived traits for Craniates?
teeth, bones and cartilage of skull, inner layer of skin, neurons, sensory capsules
What does the neural crest give rise to craniate structures?
no vertebrae, cartilaginous cranium, marine scavenders
• Only 35 species • Suspension-feeding larvae (like lancelets) • Adults parasitic • No real jaw • Cartilage skeleton - including vertebrae
gametophyte is protected and nourished from environmental stresses
Why is the reduction of the gametophyte important advantage for terrestrial living?
microspores and megaspores
What is the importance of heterospory in seed plants?
fruit and flowers
What are the shared derived traits of Angiosperms?
When did the major radiation of gymnosperms occur?
basal angiosperms, Magnoliids, Eudicots
What are plants that are part of the Dicot group?
septate and coenocytic
What are the two types of hyphae in Fungi?
Do fungal hyphae have cell walls?
What are the cell walls of fungi made of ?
haploid dominant, produce huge number of spores
What is reproduction of Fungi?
What is a key innovation of Fungi that allowed that phyla to diversify?
saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic symbiont
What are the ecological lifestyles of Fungi?
union of cytoplasm
fusion of the nuclei
What restores the haploid condition in Fungi?
What is the only diploid stage in Fungus?
What does plasmogamy produce in the Zygomycetes?
mycorrhizae and reproduce asexually
Where are spores produced in the Ascomycetes?
truffles, cup fungi, morel
Examples of Ascomycetes...
mushrooms, shelf fungi, stinkhorn
Examples of Basidiocarps...
When did the oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells appear?
ecological. geological, and genetic causes
What are three hypothesis for the Cambrian explosion?
the emergence of predator prey relationships
Explain the ecological cause of the Cambrian explosion?
When did vertebrates colonize land? (amphibians and amniotes=reptiles)
What stage in embryonic development does a series of mitotic division with no cell growth occur?
What stage in embryonic development is there a multicellular hollow ball with specific regions that give rise to specific components?
What stage in embryonic development do layers of embryonic tissues are produced that will develop into adult body parts?
special regulatory genes that control the transformation of a zygote to a specific animal.That is they control the 'fate' of embryonic cells
a group whose members share key biological features
a group that includes and ancestral species and all of its descendants
Bilateral symmetry is associated with...
Cnidaria and Ctenophora
What phyla have radial symmetry and are diploblastic?
coelom is lined by mesoderm on one side and endoderm on the other
siphon and part of tentacles
In the class Cephalopods, the foot was modified into....
What is reduced or lost in Cephalopods?
less segmentation, fused segments, specialized appendages, variation from segment to segment
What is the Arthropod Evolution
spiders, scorpions, mites, horseshoe crabs
Examples of Chelicerae
How many times did flight evolve in Insects?
extension of the cuticle
How did wing evolve?
vertebrates with jaws
lobed fin fishes
Which evolved first ray fin fishes or lobed fin fishes?
rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Osteichthyes?
sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Gnathostomes?
lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes, coelocanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
What phyla are considered the Vertebrates?
hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and ray, rayed fin fishes,
What phyla are considered the Craniates?
predators, cartilaginous skeletons
What are characteristics of the phyla Condrichthyes?
Shared derived trait because the mineralized skeleton was a characteristic of its ancestor
Is Cartilaginous skeleton a ancestral or derived trait in Condrichthyes?
Sharks that lay eggs that hatch outside the body.
Sharks that retain egg in the body, then hatch in uterus.
Sharks that provide nutrients through a placenta to the developing embryo
all animals share a common ancestor, sponges are basal animals, eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissue,most animals belong to the clade Bilateria, Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
What are the 5 points of agreement between the morphological and molecular trees?
Conodonts and jawless armored vertebrates
What were the early vertebrates?
Large eyes and mineralized mouth
Characteristics of Conodont...
armored with mineralized bones, muscular pharynx, inner ear, paired fins
Characteristics of jawless armored vertebrates
microsporangium, microspore, pollen grain, male gametophyte, sperm