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Terms in this set (21)
Attacks the opponent advancing the argument, not the evidence or logic.
Affirming the Consequent
X then Y. Y therefore X.
(Monty Python Witch trial)
Claim is a necessary condition, not a sufficient condition.
Argument from Authority
Opposite of ad hominem- argument is advanced because of those advancing it.
Argument from Ignorance/Non Testable Hypothesis
That not proven false must be true- usually applies to things that can't be proven- ex. "innocent until proven guilty".
What is popular is always right
Circular Argument/Begging the Question
Using the claim as evidence
Unwillingness to consider an opposing argument/only considering yourself to be right.
Also, over application of a theory as to not discuss the actual evidence.
Either/Or or Excluded Middle
Assumption that there is no middle ground on an issue.
Attempt to sway an argument using emotion, not logic/evidence.
Fallacy of Exclusion
Focusing attention on one group's behavior, assuming that behavior is unique to the group.
Assuming two things are more alike than they actually are.
Mistaking a small incidence for a larger trend
Assumption that two unlike moral issue carry the same weight or are essentially similar.
"Does not follow" Conclusion does not follow premises- gap in logic between evidence and conclusion.
"post hoc ergo propter hoc"- after this, therefore because of this.
Correlation does not equal causation.
Changing the subject mid-debate
Using inherent ambiguity of language to distract from issue, or rephrasing opposing argument incorrectly, addressing this rephrasing.
Arguing that one change will inevitably lead to another.
Presenting one side of an argument as radical and unagreeable- referring to the exception, not the rule, infering that the exception is the rule.
Weasel Words/Glittering Generality
Using broadly defined/subjective words like "love" "freedom"- move an argument no where, bring in emotion.
Failing Occam's Razor
Occam's Razor: scientific principle that the simplest hypothesis is probably the right one.
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