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Career Counseling Midterm

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Career Development
The lifelong psychological and behavioral processes and contextual influences shaping ones career over the life span
Core role of career development
Career practitioners focus on helping people to consider how they will develop and use their talents.
Spillover Hypothesis
Suggests that feelings in one area of life affect feelings in other areas of living.
Self-Fulfillment Work Ethic
Represented by those that seek personal and professional growth.
Career and Entrepreneurial Work Ethic
Represented by those that work to build their careers and make money
Effects of career uncertainty and dissatisfaction
Positively correlated with high levels of psychological and physical stress.
Parson's 3 Step Approach
Step 1: Requires self-investigation and self-revelation
Step 2: Relies upon accurate and comprehensive occupational info
Step 3: "True reasoning" relied upon the person's capacity to integrate into acquired from steps 1 and 2 into a career decision
Parson's approach to career counseling
Using true reasoning to mix together yourself understanding and career understanding
Goal of Trait Factor Approach
To identify the degree of fit between the person and an occupation.
How Trait and Factor Approach built on Parson's theory
Emphasized on the identification of a person's relevant traits or characteristics, usually through the use of standardized tests or inventories. Then the individual's profile of traits is matched with the factors or requirements of specific occupations.
Changes in meaning of work over last fifty years
Worked in order to survive
Worked in order to determine their status
Found their fit in the work world and did not quit
Movement that promoted development of career counseling
U.S. employment service, career pattern study.
Nature of Career Pattern Study
Helped shift the focus of career development interventions from a "static, single-choice-at-a-point-in-time concept" focused on vocational choice toward a model that conceptualized career development as an ongoing process involving the congruent implementation of the person's self-concept in a compatible occupational role.
What was learned from Career Pattern Study
He was primarily responsible for changing the definition of vocational guidance from "the process of assisting an individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it, and progress in it" to the process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work, to test this concept against reality, and to convert it into reality, with satisfaction to himself and to society.
Additionally, Super's multidisciplinary approach to studying career development incorporated contributions from economics and sociology while placing career behavior in the context of human development.
Major professional organization for career counselors
NCDA- (National Career Development Association)
What Savickas says will be future competencies for career counselors
Career counselors will teach people to be more critical of authority. People will need to be encouraged to make a commitment to their culture and community and learn how to develop and express their values in the real world. Rather than providing clients with predefined services in a sort of "one size fits all" approach, career counselors will collaborate with their clients to help them interpret and shape their career development. Rather than emphasizing a singular truth and objectivity, career counselors will move toward appreciating multiple realities, perspectivity, and relationships in their work with clients.
Gottfredson: Circumscription
The process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and social class.
Gottfredson: Compromise
The process of modifying career choices due to limiting factors, such as availability of jobs
Gottfredson: Social space
Represents the person's conclusions as to his or her fit in society.
Krumboltz: Influential factors
Genetic endowment and special abilities- sex, race, physical appearance, intelligence, abilities, and talents
Environmental conditions and events- cultural, social, political, and economic forces beyond our control
Instrumental and associative learning experiences- antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
Task-approach skills- cognitive, decision-making skills
Emphasis in Krumboltz's theory
2 distinct parts:
• 1. First part focuses on explaining the origins of career choice and is labeled as the "social learning theory of career decision making." This describes the factors influencing individuals career decisions.
• 2. The second part focuses on career counseling and is labeled the "learning theory of career counseling." This describes what career counselors can do to help their clients make effective career choices.
Krumboltz: Associative vs. instrumental learning
Associative learning experiences occur when a neutral stimulus is paired with a positive and/or negative stimulus or consequences.
nstrumental learning experiences involve antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.
Krumboltz: 4 factors that influence career decision making
1. Self-observation generalization- overt or covert statements evaluating our actual or vicarious performance or self-assessments of our interests and values are defined as self-observation generalizations
2. Worldview generalizations- generalizations about the nature and functioning of the world are formed from learning experiences.
3. Task-approach skills- cognitive and performance abilities and emotional predispositions for coping with the environment, interpreting it in relation to self-observation generalizations, and making covert and overt predictions about future events.
4. Actions- learning experiences eventually lead individuals to take actions related to entering a career.
Krumboltz: Likely causes of career indecision
1.Absence of a goal
2.Concern about having high expectations
3.Conflict between equally appropriate alternatives
Krumboltz: How career indecision is viewed
A desirable quality that motivates clients to engage in new learning experiences.
Krumboltz: Genetic endowments
Inherited qualities such as: race, sex, and physical appearance
Is Super's theory developmental, cognitive, social, and sociological? What is the emphasis?
Developmental in nature, but he labeled it as "differential-developmental social-phenomenological career theory." This label communicates Super's efforts at synthesizing and extending extant developmental and career theories.
Super: How is his theory a shift in emphasis from earlier theories?
Rather than developing a unified theory, he created a segmental theory. Life
Super: Stages of career development and what they refer to
1.Growth (child)-4-13. Fantasy, interests, and capacities. They progress through these substages by using their innate sense of curiosity, first to engage in occupational fantasies, and then, through exploring their environment. Their curiosity leads them to acquire information about work and about their own interests and capacities.
2.Exploration (adolescence)-l4-24. Crystallizing, specifying, implementing. Crystallizing an occupational preference requires people to clarify the type of work they would enjoy. Specifying occupational preferences requires the ability to make decisions by choosing from among the occupations being considered. Implementing requires taking action toward getting started in one's chosen occupational field.
3.Establishment (early adulthood)-25-45. Stabilizing, consolidating, and advancing. Stabilizing begins immediately after entering an occupation as one evaluates whether the occupational preference one has implemented provides adequate opportunity for self-concept expression. As one becomes more stabilized in an occupation, he or she turns attention away from questioning whether the choice was a good one and begins to focus on being a dependable producer and developing a positive reputation in the occupation (consolidating). Focusing on becoming a dependable producer often leads to the opportunity to move into a position of higher pay and responsibility (advancing).
4.Maintenance (middle adulthood)-45-65. Holding, updating, and innovating. Many people are confronted with the choice of either keeping up with the advancements in their field to maintain or improve their level of performance or opting for a chance in occupational fields.
5.Disengagement (late adulthood)-65+. Decelerating, retirement planning, retirement living.
Super: How one develops career self-concept
Subjective- focus on our own uniqueness and objective-compare ourselves to others
Super: career maturity vs. career adaptability
Career maturity- used in child and adolescence. Used in relationship to career decision-making readiness.
Career adaptability- reflects the fact that "as adults cope with their changing work and working conditions, adults make an impact on their environments and their environments make and impact on them."
Super: Purpose of C-DAC model
Helping clients cope with concerns arising with the exploration stage of the life-span theory segment.
Super: Life span vs. Life space vs. Self-concept
Life span-process of career development
Life space-people play 9 major roles throughout their life 1. Son or daughter 2. Student 3. Leisurite. 4. Citizen 5. Worker 6. Spouse 7. Homemaker 8. Parent 9.Pensioner. Life roles are generally played out in 1. The home 2. School 3. The workplace 4. The community. Acknowledges that people differ in the degree of importance they attach to work.
Self-concept-picture of the self in some role, situation, or position, performing some set of functions, or in some web of relationships.
Super: Importance of readiness for career decision making
Career adaptability rather than career maturity is used: A person's readiness, In this case their ability to adapt is important.
Super: Subjective vs. objective influences on self-concept
Objectively, we develop self-understanding by comparing ourselves with others.
Subjectively, we develop understanding through focusing on our uniqueness emerging out of the life stories we construct.
We use our objective and subjective understanding to identify appropriate career goals.
Super: Influences on life-role salience—what values influence role salience?
Dominant culture-culture you live in
Culture of Origin-how you identify yourself
Super: Methods to clarify vocational identity
Actuarial method- using test scores and assessments to predict
Developmental method- counselor acts as historians, its autobiographical. Try to find common themes.
Holland: Vocational identity
The procession of a clear and stable picture of one's goals, interest, and talent.
Holland: Congruence
The degree of fit between an individual's personality type and current or prospective work environment. A persons is in a congruent work environment when the person's personality type matches the occupational environment.
Holland: Differentiation
The degree of distinctness among types representing a person's personality profile.
Holland: Consistency
The degree of relatedness within types.
Common themes in emerging career theories in chapter 3
Evolved to address cognitive and meaning-making processes that people use to manage their career effectively within a global and mobile society
Attempt to address the career development needs of diverse client populations
Stresses the client's subjective experience (stories rather than scores) Postmodern approach
CIP Theory: What theory it draws on most
rooted in the three-factor Parsonian model
CIP Theory: 4 Assumptions
1.Career decision making involves interaction btwn cognitive and affective process
2.Capacity for career problem solving depends on the availability of cognitive operations and knowledge
3.Career development is ongoing and knowledge structures continually evolve
4.Enhancing information-processing skills is the goal of career counseling
CIP Theory: Major intervention strategy
the pyramid of information processing, CASVE cycle of decision making, and the executive processing domain.
CIP Theory: Pyramid of information processing
The first 3 levels of the pyramid: self-knowledge, occupational knowledge, decision-making skills
Top level: metacognitions (self-talk, self-awareness, and monitoring/control of cognitions)
CIP Theory: CASVE cycle of decision-making skills
a generic model of information processing skills related to solving career problems and making career-decisions.
These skills are: Communication, Analysis, Synthesis, Valuing, Execution. The use of these skills is cyclical.
Executive processing domain- initiate, coordinate and monitor the storage or and retrieval of information. Involves metacognitive skills such as self-talk, self-awareness and control.
CIP Theory: Sequence of processing information
Knowledge of self and occupations forms the foundation of the pyramid and then decision-making skills and metacognitions build upon this foundation
CIP Theory: Sequence of career counseling steps using CIP (seven of them)
Step 1 - Conduct initial interview with client.
Step 2 - Do a preliminary assessment to determine the client's readiness.
Step 3 - Work with client to define the career problem(s) and analyze causes.
Step 4 - Collaborate with client to formulate achievable problem-solving and decision-making goals.
Step 5 - Provide clients with a list of activities and resources they need (individual learning plans).
Step 6 - Require clients to execute their individual learning plans.
Step 7 - Conduct a summative review of client progress and generalize new learning to other career problems
CIP Theory: Steps in CASVE process and what happens during each step
1.Communication- ask what am I thinking/feeling about my career choice at this moment and what do I hope to attain from career counseling?
2.Analyze- What is required for problem resolution? Do I need more info about myself? What must I do to acquire information/recources to cope more effectively with my career problem?
3.Synthesis- Two phases:
• Elaboration- clients seek to identify as many potential solutions to their career problem as possible
• Crystallization- clients identify those solutions that are consistent with their abilities, interests or values.
4.Valuing- Which alternative is the best course of action for me, my significant others and society?
5.Execution- Identify the specific steps necessary to operationalize the solution chosen in the valuing phase. How can I transform my choice into an action plan?
CIP Theory: How info is deciphered in CASVE process
Once the plan has been enacted, clients return to the communication phase to determine whether the alternative was successful in resolving the career problem. If the evaluation is positive, the client moves on, but if the evaluation is negative, clients recycle through the CASVE phases with new info acquired from the first completion of the cycle.
What occurs on each level of CIP Pyramid
First 3 levels of the pyramid reflect domains that are traditionally included in career theories: self knowledge, occupational knowledge, and decision making skills. The fourth domain and top of the pyramid is metacognitions and includes self-talk, self-awareness, and the monitoring and control of cognitions.
Knowledge of self and occupations forms the foundation of the pyramid, and then decision making skills and metacognitions build upon this foundation.
Name of Career test developed for CIP theory
Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI)
What CIP emphasizes the most with clients
Executive processing domain
SCCT Theory: Meaning of Self-efficacy
People's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances
SCCT Theory: Meaning of performance attainments and persistence in overcoming obstacles
Performance is influenced by ability, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals. Ability affects performance both indirectly and directly through influencing self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations.
SCCT Theory: What forces shape self-efficacy beliefs
Personal performance accomplishments (the most influential source), Vicarious learning, Social persuasion, Physiological states and reactions
Focus of SCCT
Addressing performance attainments and persistence in overcoming obstacles
SCCT Theory: Contextual factors
Geography, family, gender-role socialization
SCCT Theory: Personal input factors
Predisposition, gender and race
SCCT Theory: What influences outcome expectations
Person inputs (predisposition, gender and race), interact with contextual factors (culture, geography, family, gender-role socialization) and learning experiences to influence our self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations.
Narrative/Constructivism: Role of formal vs. informal assessment
Uses informal assessments
How narrative emphasis differs from traditional testing-based approaches
Narrative approach emphasizes the subjective experience of career development. Focus on the individual's personal story that is grounded in theme's and meanings
Hansen's ILP: Major tasks of ILP model
1.Finding work that needs doing in changing global contexts
2.Weaving their lives into a meaningful whole
3.Connecting family and work
4.Valuing pluralism and inclusivity
5.Managing personal transitions and organizational change
6.Exploring spirituality and life purpose
Hansen's ILP: Emphasis
Social justice, social change, connectedness, diversity and spirituality.
Constructivism: Major focus
People are active organizers of their own experiences. People construct meaning through the decisions they make and the actions they take.
Constructivism: Major postmodern approaches
Narrative, Constructivist, Subtextual
Constructivism: Meaning of fruitfulness
The assumption that counseling should result in a changed outlook or new perspective on some aspect of life.
Constructivism: Meaning of responses to Savickas Career Style Interview questions
Responses to the questions are connected to life themes revealed in the early life recollections to help clients clarify the life projects that guide their career behavior.
Definition of assessment
The use of any formal or informal technique or instrument to collect data about a client
Which step it is most likely to be used in 7 step model?
Step 2 Learn About/Reevaluate Vocational Self-Concept
Reasons assessment should be used in career counseling
o Counselor can learn more about the needs of the client
o Counselor can learn about the characteristics of the client and help the client learn more about themselves
o Determine/measure the client's progress in the area of career development
Differences between tests and inventories
o Tests- measure abilities or qualities that involve right and wrong answers
o Inventories- assesses content areas in which there are no right or wrong answers. An instrument measuring person's interests is an inventory
Example of forced choice activities in career counseling
o The client is asked to make a choice between two options that are very different from each other or to rank-order three or more activities.
o Ex: Work Values: Through your life's work, would you rather (a) make a lot of money or (b) make a contribution to society
Informal Assessments
Ex: Checklists, games, fantasies, forced-choice activities, card sorts, and structured interviews
Characteristics:
• Not subjected to scientific rigor/No known reliability or validity
• Results from one person can't be compared to others
• No documents that link/make a connection between results and occupational choices
• No standard way to interpret the results, thus interpretation is dependent on the competence of the counselor
• Low cost/free materials
Advantages: Low cost/free; may not require advance ordering of materials; may not require as much time to administer; may be less anxiety-producing for the client
Formal Assessments
Ex: any assessments
Characteristics:
• Known validity- measures what it claims to measure
• Known reliability (test-retest reliability)- results of later administration will be similar to the first administration
• Fairness related to diversity- adequately researched with the kinds of people who will later take the instrument
• Measures of comparison- compares the scores of one person with those of others
Meaning of a raw score
The total number of responses related to some category (right/wrong, or assigned to some scale) is reported. This data does not provide a picture of how examinees compare to others but does allow them to rank order what is being measured.
Major interest inventories
The purpose is to identify personal characteristics that can be related to those of occupations/jobs in order to focus exploration of options.
Major work skills inventories
SkillScan and WorkKeys
Advantages of internet testing
o Can be taken anywhere 24/7
o Immediate scoring and feedback
o Standard interpretation, though customized
o Capacity to share report with others electronically
Informed consent with career testing (i.e. what do you need to tell the client before testing?)
o Explain what they will get from inventory
o Get agreement that they think it will be helpful
o Explain test and how long it will be
o Tell client when results will be ready
o Explain what score report will be like
o Explain what will happened with results
What should be done before interpreting an inventory (i.e., what's important?)
Purpose of assessment and will be helpful to client. How will it help?
Meaning of a percentile score and how you would explain it to a career client
Compare the scores of one person with those of a selected norm group. The percentile score indicates the percent of the norm group that scored lower than the examinee and by subtracting the score from 100, provides the percent of the norm group that scored higher.
Acceptable test-retest reliabilities
A test-retest correlation coefficient of .8 is considered good and acceptable for selection of an instrument.