Social reaction theory is also commonly called _______ theory.
According to ________, society creates deviance through a system of social control agencies that designate certain individuals as delinquent, thereby stigmatizing youths and encouraging them to accept this negative personal identity.
The roots of social reaction theory can be found in a branch of sociology known as __________.
___________: the public identity of an offender is transformed in a solemn process during which the targeted person is thrust outside the social mainstream.
_______ deviance involves norm violations or crimes that have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten.
Deviant behavior patterns that are a response to an earlier labeling experience are known as __________.
According to Becker, those kids who continually break rules but are able to avoid labeling are called ___________.
_______ deviance occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label.
a degradation ceremony
Going to court and being scolded by a judge would be an example of ____________.
____________ theory emphasizes that those with money and power succeed in shaping the law to meet their needs and maintain their interests.
______ theorists view delinquency as a normal response to the conditions created by capitalism.
Using humanistic, nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony is referred to as ___________.
Alternative community-based sanctions substituted for state training school is a policy known as _______________.
_____________ is extremely damaging because it may cause adolescents to seek deviant peers whose behavior amplifies the effect of the labeling.
Family group conferencing
___________ involves the victim and offender along with the family, friends, and key supporters of both in deciding the resolution of the delinquent act.
Techniques used to allow offenders to understand and recognize their wrongdoing and shame themselves are referred to as ______________.
The reassessment of a person's past to fit a generalized label is referred to as retrospective reading.
To drive home the point that the youthful suspect is an outcast who should be shunned by society, the justice system relies on degradation ceremony.
Secondary deviance occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label.
Labeling theory explains how sustained delinquent behavior stems from destructive peer relationships.
Life course Theory
The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called ____________
authority conflict pathway
The _______ to delinquent deviance begins at an early age with stubborn behvior, which leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
the overt pathway
The conduit to a delinquent career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent delinquency is called ____________.
If an offender's delinquent career continues well into adulthood, the offender is referred to as a/an ___________.
When a person has positive relations with individuals and institutions, as in a successful marriage or career, that support is sometimes referred to as _____________.
________ theories incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior.
Defective intelligence, impulsive personality, genetic abnormalities, and the physical chemical functioning of the brain are all examples of a _____________.
level of self-control
Gottfredson and Hirschi attribute the tendency to commit delinquent acts to a person's ________.
inadequate child-rearing practices
Gottfredson and Hirschi traced the root cause of poor self-control to ___________.
_______ theory looks at the onset, continuity, and termination of a delinquent career.
The view that women who commit crime have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men is called the __________.
According to the critical feminist, ________ triggers the onset of female delinquent and deviant behavior.
_________ theorists suggest that girls are socialized to be passive, which helps explain their low crime rate.
Liberal feminism asserts that females are less delinquent than males because their _________ provide them with fewer opportunities to commit crimes.
The _______ is the view that lower female crime an delinquency rates are a reflectoin of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.
Investigators continue to support the view that female delinquents have more _________ home lives than male offenders.
In general, females who have higher levels of _________ are more likely to engage stereotypical male behaviors.
The socialization approach holds that ______ is the key to understanding female delinquency.