Freshman Final - History (in class review)
Terms in this set (83)
Romulus and Remus
Mythical story where two boys born of a human mother and god for a father were abandoned and raised by a she-wolf. Romulus murders Remus and founds Rome.
Early settlers on Italian peninsula. Known for their metal working. Romans adopted their writing system. Rome adopted their architecture especially the Arch, roads, and how to drain marshes. Also the etruscans had the first gladiators. After the last king, Tarquin an oppressive king, the Roman Republic was begun.
Rome's government after the resolved to not have another abusive king, a mix of monarchy (consuls), aristocracy (senate), and democracy (tribunes).
Monarchy, two consuls elected for 1-year terms could not run again within 10 years. Limited power. They could veto one another.
Ruled during a time of war or chaos. Could only be in power for 6 months.
The common people, the backbone of society, farmers, merchants, artisans. They were the backbone of the army
a law code made to protect the plebeians from the wealthy patricians.
The wealthy elite. The landowners who were born into their positions.
Rome and the Carthaginian empire battled for control of trade and control of the Mediterranean. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal and won many battles but ultimately lost the war leaving Rome to dominate the Mediterranean.
General for Carthage. He was a brilliant tactician and surprised Rome by marching his troops through the alps with elephants. He won many battles but lost the war.
People from the empire of Carthage in North Africa. Fought Rome in the Punic Wars, led by Hannibal.
The military unit used by Rome. Made up of 5,000 men. Centuries made up the legions. There were 80 men in each century.
Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar
After the Punic Wars, individual Generals struggled for power and destroyed the Republic. He was a part of the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey This man was able to invade Rome and gain control as the only emperor. He was assassinated in the Senate on the ides of March.
Leipidus, Mark Antony, and Octavian (Augustus) set out to avenge the death of Julius Caesar
Also known as Augustus, gains sole power of Rome and creates a time of peace in Rome (pax romana)
Roman emperor who stopped persecution against Christians and moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople.
Roman peace, increased trade. During the time of Augustus (Octavian)
In order to keep the poor content and quiet these were held to distract the people. Could be two men fighting eachother, a man fighting an animal etc. Started by the etruscans as a burial rite or funeral process.
An amphitheater for gladiatorial games, made in Rome in the beginning of the 1st century.
Art made from wet plaster on walls. Found in Pompeii where they were saved by volcanic ash.
Carved from stone, images project from background
Art made from pieces of tile, glass, stone
Brought water into roman cities.
Legacy of Rome
Rome contributes greatly to our
- Greco roman culture
- legal system
- architecture & engineering
- language (latin is the language of learning & the catholic church)
These are languages that are derived from latin. Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian.
The birthplace of Islam, large desert area
Group of nomadic people who lived in Arabia. They were animistic in religion and pastoralists
Submission to the will of allah
The followers, one who has submitted
The only God (same as Christian and Jewish God) Arabic word for God.
The worship site of Muslims
Pillars of Faith
3) Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca
5) Fasting (during Ramadaan)
Muslims make the pilgrimage or hajj to Mecca to see the Ka'aba
Located in Mecca this is the black stone this held the idols until Muhammad destroyed them.
The final prophet, begins the religion of Islam when he is visited by Gabriel
The turning point or most important moment of Islam when Muhammad moves from Mecca to Yathrib (medina) and becomes a political leader as well as a religious leader with 10,000 followers.
The community of muslim faithful
Central text of Islam, revelations of God to Muhammad
The body of islamic law
Successor to Muhammad
Sect of islam that followed in the example of Muhammad
A sect of Islam that believes the Caliph needs to be from Muhammad's blood line. Party of Ali
Sect that rejects the lavish life of the Umayyads
Only God can create living things, so Muslim art should not include living things. Instead, focus on Arabesque or geometric designs.
Women in Islam
Socially men are dominant, but religious women are equal. Muslim women had more economic and political rights than most of their counterparts but over time these rights were taken away.
House of Wisdom
library, academy and translation center. Collected the works of Greece, India, and Persia and translated them thus saving them. Preserving classical thought
People of the book
People who were considered protected when the muslims conquered them. They were respected since they are the same god.
Made contributions in Math (algebra), medicine, astronomy (astrolabe, armillary sphere)
Spread of Islamic Empire
The Muslims had a very strong army that fought ferociously. They belived you would go straight to paradise if you died in battle. When they conquered they could NOT force conversion, many invaded people welcomed them because there was no forced conversion and tolerance.
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Leader in Byzantine empire, made the empire an extension of Rome. Very similar to Roman culture. He even reconquered much of the land lost from the old Roman empire.
Byzantine's navy use of a fire bomb that made it strong and able to withstand conquering enemies for a little while longer before its downfall.
Wife of Justinian, an extremely strong woman who helped control Justinian and make key decisions for the Byzantine empire. She helped pass laws to promote women's rights and met with foreign diplomats. Key to making sure that Justinian didn't run during the Nika Rebellion.
Plague of Justinan
Bubonic plague that struck the Byzantine empire. Brought by fleas on rats. Killed 1/2 of the empire's population. Estimated 100 million died worldwide.
Code of Justinian
Legal experts sifted through 400 years of roman law. Condensed it so that only the most important laws remained.
Church built by Justinian
Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons because he felt people were worshipping the icons (idolatry). The icons were destroyed. The pope excommunicated Leo.
The Pope and Patriarch excommunicated each other. The Pope had claimed authority over the Patriarch and this upset the patriarch. Splits the Catholic church into two. Roman Catholic church (pope) in the west and Orthodox church in the east (Patriarch)
Leader of the eastern orthodox church or the Byzantine church
a ruler who has absolute power of both the church and the state
Cyril and Methodius
Missionaries to the Slavs, competing with the western church for converts. Created Cyrillic to a language for the Slavs so they could read the bible.
Russian word for Caesar
Built the foundation for the Tang and Song Dynasty through their building of the Grand Canal and rebuilding the Great Wall
Build by Wendi, connected the Chang Jiang and Huang He rivers. Unites northern and southern china. Increases trade, communication and travel.
First and only empress of china. She used propaganda to maintain her power.
Battle of Talas
Muslims v. Tang army, Tang army lost.
Bureaucracy/Civil Service Test
Having skilled and capable workers complete the day to day business of the government.
The new upper class started by the civil service test, does not require birth to be high born but values education instead.
Famous poet during the Tang Dynasty
Capital of the Song Dynasty
During the Tang and Song dynasty this was the religion that was most common. It later influenced Japan and Shintoism.
Lost rights as the practice of foot binding began. Women were crippled, this showed the wealth of the husband. If he was wealthy enough he could afford to have a beautiful and impractical wife.
United the clans on the steppe. Created the largest empire. Upon his death the empire was divided into four khanates.
A time period of prosperity and increased trade during mongol rule of Eurasia.
Golden Horde= Russia
Great Khan= China
Chagatai Khanate= Central Asia
Grandson of Genghis Khan. United China for the first time in 300 years. Lived a sedentary life in China in the capital of Beijing. Gave up a life on the steppes.
Mongol dynasty. The first time the Chinese were ruled by a foreigner. Characterized by trade especially with Marco Polo who wrote the accounts of China during this time.
Lived in China during the Yuan dynasty for 17 years. He returned home to Italy and told his stories, his stories were later written down and provide us with information about the Yuan Dynasty.
Founder of the Han Dynasty. First he destroyed rival kings, he used Shi Huangdi's centralized government but he did NOT use his strict legalism. He lowered taxes and softened punishment.
The wife of Liu Bang, she was the regent for her son. She kept naming infants the heir to throne in order to keep her power.
The grandson of Liu Bang, he expanded the Han Dynasty through warfare.
Invented in china, helped education and the civil service exam spread.