23 terms

Human Genetics (Ch 14)

Chapter 14 in Miller & Levine Biology
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Autosome
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Bioinformatics
A field of study that includes the operation of databases.
Sex chromosomes
The X chromosome and the Y chromosome are...
Karyotype
A picture that shows chromosomes arranged in pairs.
Nondisjunction
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis.
Genome
The full set of genetic information in an organism's DNA.
Restriction enzyme
Isolated from bacteria, scientists can use this to cut DNA molecule into small pieces.
Sex-linked gene
A gene on the X or Y chromosome.
Pedigree
A chart that shows family relationships and inheritance of traits through several generations.
Gel electrophoresis
A technology used to separate fragments of DNA.
Genomics
The study of whole genomes, including genes and their functions.
Mitocondrial
You can trace this type of DNA inheritance from the maternal line.
Down's syndrome
The most common trisomy, caused by a non-disjunction.
Dominant
A trait that occurs in every generation, where if a child has the trait, one of the parents also had the trait.
Recessive
A trait that can appear to skip a generation (a child can have the trait, even if neither of the parents had the trait).
DNA fingerprinting
A process of using DNA to identify people or show whether they are related.
Sickle cell
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
Huntington's disease
Mental deterioration and uncontrollable movements; appears in middle age
Cystic fibrosis
A human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
trisomy
A genetic condition of having three chromosomes instead of two. The condition usually causes severe birth defects
monosomy
A condition in a diploid cell in which one chromosome of one pair is missing as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis. This condition is usually lethal.
homozygous
Describes the genotype of an organism with two alleles that are the same for a specific trait (AA or aa for example)
heterozygous
Describes the genotype of an organism with two different alleles for a specific trait (Aa for example)