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OB:Fetal Neural Axis Anomalies
Terms in this set (62)
closure of the neural tube
Many congential anomalies of the CNS result from incomplete _______ __ ___ ______ ____.
Cranial & caudal
What ends of the neural tubes are unfused?
What is the most common neural tube defect?
True or False: Anencephaly is a lethal disorder and occur in female 4 to 1 over males.
Bulging fetal orbits is called what appearance and is associated with what anomaly?
It is common to see what type of AFI with Anencephaly?
Amniotic band syndrome
Defects that mimic Anencephaly included:
Absence of cranial bones/vault & lethal
(no frog like appearance)
A defect containing meninges or both meninges & brain herniating through a defect in the calvarium.
What type of cephalocele? - contains brain
What type of cephalocele? - meninges only
What type of cephalocele? - Meninges & brain
What type of cephalocele? - Meninges & brain & lat vents
Occipital bone & midline
In cephalocele what parts are highly commonly involved in 75% of the cases?
What other type of anomalies are commonly associated with Neural Tube Defects?
What is the 2nd most common NTD?
lumbar and sacral
Spina Bifida Mostly occurs along the ___ & ____ regions.
Maternal Serum Fetal Protein
The mom will have elevated (MSAFP) _______with spina bifida
When covered with skin or hair it is referred to what as what type of Spina Bifida?
Most frequent Spina Bifida when the neural tube defect is open or exposed?
lemon & banana sign
What are two cranial Signs/symbols that are associated with spina bifida?
Spina bifida: defect only involves protrusion of the meninges & cerebral spinal fluid ?
Spina bifida: meninges & neural elements protrude through the defect
Spina bifida: very large & severe bc the spinal cord is exposed into the amniotic fluid
V or U configuration
Sonographic appearance of transverse spina bifida posterior ossification center with a
True (look at the parent's head)
True or false: The "lemon Sign" can be a normal finding if seen alone.
Agenesis or hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis resulting in 4th ventricle dilation.
What is the milder case of DWS called?
What causes about 4% of hydrocephalus?
posterior fossa cysts (vary in size)
Splaying of cerebellar hemispheres
Sonographic findings of Dandy-Walker Syndrome
3 types of Holoprosencephaly:
A range of abnormalities resulting from abnormal cleavage of the prosencephalon (forebrain), occurs sporadically
Most severe Holoprosencephaly: FUSED THALAMUS & small brain tissue/Absence of almost all cranial landmarks
Intermediate Holoprosencephaly: Singular ventricular cavity with partial occipital horns.
Semilobar Holoprosencephaly has what 4 absent brain features?
Mild Holoprosencephaly: Almost full division of ventricles
What is always missing in Lobar Holoprosencephaly?
Holoprosencephaly has been associated with chromosomal anomalies SPECIFICALLY __ __.
when your eyes are closer together than normal
When the nose comes out of the forehead
Holoprosencephaly highly effects not only the brain but the ?
IUGR is commonly associated with _____________.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum
Absence of corpus callosum, CSP & dilated occipital horns of the lat vents
A fibrous tract that connects the cerebral hemispheres & aids in learning and memory.
Results from obstruction, atresia or stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius causing ventriculomegaly
the third and forth ventricle
Aqueduct sylvius connects what?
Vein of Galen Aneurysm
Rare arteriovenous malformation, usually isolated and male predominance.
Choroid Plexus Cyst
Common: round or ovoid anechoic plexus structures found within the choroid plexus
Choroid Plexus Cysts are normally isolated and resolve by ___ to ___ weeks.
larger cysts are commonly associated with ?
cysts that are filled with CSF that communicates with ventricular system or subarachnoid space.
Porencephalic cysts may result in
A rare disorder characterized by clefts in the cerebral cortex: unilateral or bilateral
abnormal migration of neurons
Schizencephaly results from
Sonographic appearance: Fluid filled cleft in the cerebral cortex extending from the ventricle to the calvarium.
Destruction of the cerebral hemispheres by the occlusion of the internal carotid arteries
Hydranencephaly will sonographically show an absence of normal _______ _____ and be replaced with ___.
dilation of the ventricles of the brain
ventriculomegaly & enlargement of the fetal head
Dangling choroid Sign
Sign for Ventriculomegaly =
An abnormally small head that falls 2 standard deviations below the mean
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