13- Manifest Destiny
Terms in this set (29)
What was the Oregon Country? What made it important?
The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It was important because the soil was perfect for farming and there was good climate. Plus, the dense forests were home to beavers and otters, which were good for fur trade.
Describe who the fur trappers were. Give examples.
Fur trappers were the first whites to travel to Oregon Territory. They set traps for animals and collected them in the fall and spring to bring them to a rendezvous point in July where they would sell their furs. Fur was in demand at the time and could be sold for huge profits in China, Europe, and the eastern US. In the late 1830s, animals became scarce due to overhunting. Instead of fur trapping, the mountain men found jobs leading settlers across the trails to Oregon. For example, Jedediah Smith discovered the South Pass in Wyoming and James Beckworth found a path to California through the Sierra Nevadas.
Describe who the mountain men were. What was their life like? Give an example.
Mountain men were adventurous, rugged, fur traders who wore clothes made of animal hides with hair that typically reached to their shoulders. They were heavily armed and lived off the land. Their life was very dangerous because they had to watch out for Native Americans, animal attacks, and harsh weather.
What were missionaries? Give an example.
Missionaries traveled to Oregon to convert Native Americans to Christianity. For example, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman worked with the Cayuse tribe. More Americans began to arrive in Oregon, and with them they brought diseases that killed many natives. In 1847, a measles epidemic killed many Cayuse children, so a war party killed the Whitmans and 12 other settlers.
Who were the pioneers?
Pioneers were people who traveled to Oregon to begin a new life. They packed heavily and needed to reach Oregon before winter.
What was the Oregon Trail?
The Oregon Trail was a path used by people who wanted to settle in Oregon. Families met at Independence, Missouri ("jumping off" town) in the spring. They traveled across the trail in wagon trains, which had elected leaders and their own set of laws. The wagons were wooden wagons covered with a canvas and pulled by animals (also called "schooners").
What was life like on the Oregon Trail?
The wagon train left early every morning and stopped at noon for lunch and so the animals could rest. At sundown, the wagons were placed in a circle to keep animals from wandering. People would get together and have dances, sing, etc. Guards would keep watch at night.
What were some of the dangers of the trail?
Dangers of the trail included flash floods in the spring, extreme heat conditions in the summer, extreme cold and snow that could cover mountain passes in the winter, lack of food, sickness and disease, hostile Native Americans, wild animals, thieves, broken wagons, and dead horses or oxen.
What were the effects of the pioneers on the trail?
Between 1840 and 1860, 50,000 settlers reached Oregon. Americans wanted all of Oregon to themselves. In 1846, President Polk made the Oregon Treaty with the UK. The treaty stated that Oregon would be split at 49˚ N latitude; the north would belong to the UK and the south would belong to the US.
How and when did Florida become a state?
On July 21, 1821, Florida became an American territory from Spain. By 1837, it grew to about 480,000 people. Florida wanted to enter the US as a slave state, so it had to wait for another state to become a free state. Iowa became that state in 1845. Florida became the 27th state on March 3, 1845.
Who were the Tejanos?
The Tejanos were people of Mexican descent born in Texas.
Who was Stephen Austin?
Stephen Austin was an American who bought land in Texas and settled there with his family. After Mexico revolted against Spain and won its independence, he also brought American settlers into Texas to set up cotton plantations.
Who was General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna?
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became the dictator of Mexico in 1833 and wanted to get rid of the Americans that occupied Mexico and Texas.
What was the Texas Revolution?
The Texas Revolution was a war fought between Mexico and Texas because the Mexican dictator (Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna) wanted to get rid of the Texans.
Name some facts about the Texas Revolution.
The Texas Revolution began at the Battle of Gonzalez, where the Texas rebels refused to give up a cannon. They defeated the Mexican troops and forced them to retreat. Later, the Texans moved on to San Antonio and seized control of the city. Santa Anna began heading for the Texans with a large army. On March 2, 1836 government officials declared Texas to be an independent republic.
Who was Sam Houston?
Sam Houston was the general in charge of the Texas army during the Texas Revolution.
What was the Alamo? Who was there? What happened there?
The Alamo was an old Spanish mission in San Antonio that the Texans occupied during the revolution. The Texans had little ammo, food, water, medicine, and troops. Defending the fort was Colonel William Travis, Davy Crockett, and Jim Bowie. On February 23, 1836, Mexicans attacked the Alamo. The Texans defended it bravely and held out for 12 days until March 6 when Mexican cannons destroyed the walls and all Texans were executed.
Describe the battles of Goliad and San Jacinto.
Mexican troops surrounded 300 Texas soldiers at Goliad. The Texans surrendered and were executed by Santa Anna. Americans back east were outraged by this and many volunteered to fight with the Texans. General Houston made plans to attack Santa Anna and his men at the San Jacinto River. They launched the attack on April 21, 1836 and caught the Mexicans by surprise. The Battle of San Jacinto was a victory for the Texans. Santa Anna was captured and signed a treaty granting Texas its independence.
What was the Lone Star Republic?
The Lone Star Republic was the name of Texas after it won independence from Mexico. Texas wrote a constitution and made General Sam Houston president.
How and when did Texas become a state?
Texas wanted to become part of the US, but the US was divided on whether or not to annex it. Texas supported slavery, so the south wanted it but the north didn't. Plus, Mexico didn't recognize Texas as an independent nation and the US wanted to avoid war with Mexico. In 1836, the US refused to annex Texas, but in 1845, Texas became part of the US.
Who were the Mormons?
The Mormons were a religious group founded by Joseph Smith and the largest group of followers to move into New Mexico territory. They felt Utah was "Zion" or promised land.
Who were Joseph Smith and Brigham Young?
Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormons. After he died, Brigham Young took over as leader of the group. Young wanted to find refuge for his followers, so he led his people to the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. He was followed by 15,000 settlers on a difficult journey.
How and when did Utah become a state?
Brigham Young improved Utah greatly. He devised an irrigation system and made plans to build Salt Lake City. Young became governor of Utah in 1850 and Utah became a state in 1896.
What was the Gold Rush and how did it start?
The Gold Rush was a time in the late 1840s when miners from all over the world rushed to California to find gold. It started in 1848 when John Sutter was building a sawmill on his property near Sacramento, California. James Marshall (Sutter's worker) discovered gold one day by accident.
What was a Boom Town and how did they start?
A Boom Town was a settlement characterized by rapid population and economic growth. They began as tent cities formed at the edges of mines. Boom Towns first popped up during the Gold Rush because miners came from all over the world and needed places to stay.
What was life like in a Boom Town?
People of all different nationalities lived in Boom Towns. They were dangerous places, though. Violence was common due to people mixing together in gambling houses and saloons. There was a need for law enforcement, so Vigilance Committees popped up in many cities. Vigilance Committees were self-appointed volunteers that provided law and order even though they had no legal right to do so.
What problems did life in a Boom Town create?
Boom Towns polluted nearby streams and miners stripped land of its natural resources. Discrimination occurred against foreign miners. Plus, many miners didn't strike it rich because they couldn't afford expensive digging equipment to reach deep deposits after all the surface gold was gone.
What was a Ghost Town and what happened to them?
Ghost Towns were Boom Towns that had been depleted of resources and deserted by all of its citizens.
How and when did California become a state?
Many miners who failed to strike it rich stayed in California and helped to develop it into a state. This created a diverse population. California wrote a state constitution and was admitted to the US in 1850.