• The Association of Southeastern Asian Nations was established on August 8, 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand by the five original member countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
• From 1984-1999 the nations of Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia also joined. The aims and purposes of the Association are: 1) to accelerate economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the region, 2) to promote regional peace and stability through respect for justice and law in adherence to the principles of the United Nations. The Association has basic principles of respect and equality, the right for each nation to lead without external influence, settlement of disputes in peaceful ways, and effective cooperation.
• The EU descended from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC).
• The European Union (EU) is a social, political and economic organization made up of 27 European states, formed in 1993 to create unity and increase trade within Europe. The first states to join the EU included Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands. Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK also joined, along with the ten states that joined after 2004.
• 17 EU states adopted a common currency, the euro.
• More unity was obtained through the creation of a single market trading idea and the elimination of the Berlin Wall/Iron Curtain in 1989, which had separated Eastern and Western Europe until that time.
• The Holocaust occurred in World War II, where peoples were deliberately and systematically put to death. The Jews however, were the most targeted victims.
• When Hitler came to power, he deprived Jews of citizenship, legal rights and made them live in ghetto areas in cities.
• In early 1942, Nazis built extermination camps in order to carry out Hitler's "final solution to the Jewish problem".
• People who were sent here were put to work until they died, starved, tortured, and put into gas chambers. Auschwitz was the largest camp, designed to kill 1200 per day
• The Holocaust killed approximately 5-6 million Jews, and also millions of others including Polish Catholics, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Gypsies, the disabled and mentally ill.
• About 11 million total people died in the Holocaust.
• In 1919, the Irish Republic was formally established. The IRA (Irish Republican Army), the official army of the Irish Republic, waged a guerilla conlfict against the British in the Irish War of Independence.
• Following that war, some IRA members refused to recognize a divided Ireland. They took the name "IRA" and remained politically and militarily active in opposition to the British. There were even plans for aiding a German invasion during WWII.
• Following WWII, terrorist activities were planned and carried out by the IRA against British targets, most of which were in Northern Ireland. There were several splits in the organization, but the IRA figured in the 1969 Riots in Northern Ireland that began a violent Thirty-year period of "The Troubles" in which the IRA was involved in bombings, assassinations, smuggling, and robberies.
• Most IRA groups declared a cease fire in 1997 that allowed political negotiations about Northern Ireland's political future. In February 2010, an announcement was made that the stockpiles of IRA arms had been "decommissioned."
Nationalism or nation-building, a process which began in Europe in the 19th century, continued to spread after WWI.
The struggle for independence from colonial rule, which began after World War I, accelerated after World War II.
In Asia and Africa, all of the former colonial holdings of the European states became independent in the years following World War II.
Examples of additional nationalist independence movements:
• The Hindu-Moslem conflict, which created the partition between India and Pakistan, and the subsequent struggle between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
• The Indo-China struggle for independence from France and the United States, which led to the independent nations of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.
• The Algerian war for independence from France
• The struggle of Congo for independence from Belgium
Nationalism in other conflicts:
• The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
• The Biafran-Nigerian War
• The struggle between Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda and Burundi
• The Moslem-Christian conflict in the Sudan
• The struggle for independence of the Kurds from Turkey and Iraq.
• The stand-off between Greeks and Turks in Cyprus
• The conflict between Serbs, Croats and Moslems in Bosnia and Croatia
• Formed in 1960 by oil-producing states to promote their collective interest in higher revenues.
• The founding members are Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Later members include Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Qatar, Nigeria, and the United Arab Emirates.
• The Middle East began using oil as an economic weapon. In 1973 after the United States helped in supporting Israel after a surprise Egyptian attack (Yom Kippur War) the Arab oil-producing countries embargoed oil shipments to the United States. This caused prices to skyrocket and provoked a feeling of crisis in the consuming countries.
• High oil prices actually spurred conservation and alternative fuel development. It also sparked tensions between OPEC nations and the United States.
• Royal Dutch Shell (or just Shell) is a global oil and gas company created in 1907.
• Fifth-largest company in the world (and the second-largest energy company)
• has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil per day
• Shell began drilling for oil in Africa during the 1950s. Shell began oil production in Nigeria in 1958. Shell exerts an enormous influence in Nigeria and has be accused of serious crimes in the country. Shell also operates in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia.
• Also has major operations in Philippines, Ireland, Scandinavia, throughout North America, Australia and New Zealand.
• Following WWII, the French attempted to reassert control. This was resisted by Ho Chi Minh and a nationalist coalition, the Viet Minh.
• After the fall of Dienbienphu, the French withdrew from the region and Ho Chi Minh's government took over the north, set up a communist government and attempted to consolidate power throughout the region.
• The United States, urged on by Cold War fears, stepped in to reinforce the non-communist state of South Vietnam.
• The U.S. increased their involvement, but the Viet Cong guerrillas and the North Vietnamese gained more credibility, especially with the victory of the Tet Offensive.
• A 1973 treaty ended U.S. participation in the war, with the promise of elections from the North Vietnamese. However, this treaty was violated two years later with the capture of Saigon, which became Ho Chi Minh City, joining the two and north and south.
• A mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was a Soviet military response to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955.
• The strategy of the Warsaw Pact was dominated by the desire to prevent, at all costs, the recurrence of an invasion of Russian territory as had occurred under Hitler in 1941, leading to extreme devastation and human losses.
• It was also dominated by the Marxist-Leninist teaching that one way or the other, socialism ultimately had to prevail, which was taken to mean even in a nuclear war. the USSR established the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into NATO.
• The reality, however, was that a "Warsaw"-type pact had been in existence since 1945, when Soviet forces were initially in occupation of Eastern Europe, and maintained there after the war. The Warsaw Pact merely formalized the arrangement. As a result, many nations joined NATO because they felt threatened.