Quiz 1 Review
Terms in this set (32)
What is the project of the book, Queer Theory: An Introduction?
"Queer Theory: An Introduction examines the constitutive discourses of homosexuality developed in the last century in order to place queer in its historical context and surveys contemporary arguments both for and against this latest terminology"
From what area of studies does queer theory come from?
Gay and Lesbian Studies
Why is the word "queer" itself queer?
"its definitional indeterminacy, its elasticity, is one of its constituent characteristics"
What is a definition of "queer"? (According to Queer Theory: An Introduction)
Broadly speaking, queer describes those gestures or analytical models which dramatize incoherencies in the allegedly stable relations between chromosomal sex, gender, and sexual desire.
What was the function of the homophile movement?
"homophile organizations set up educational programs and worked towards political reform designed to increase tolerance of homosexuality and, in some cases, to decriminalize it."
What is the earliest recorded American homophile organization and when was it chartered?
The Chicago Society for Human Rights, 1924
What were some of the techniques for activism within the Daughters of Bilitis?
"They advocated... a more assimilationist set of values, recommending that lesbians dress in recognizably feminine ways in order to increase their chances of better paid employment"
What was the liberationist model of homosexuality?
According to the liberationist model, the established social order is fundamentally corrupt, and therefore the success of any political action is to be measured by the extent to which it smashes that system.
What was the ethnic model of homosexuality?
The ethnic model, was committed to establishing gay identity as a legitimate minority group, whose official recognition would secure citizenship rights for lesbian and gay subjects.
Constructed as analogous to an ethnic minority—that is, as a distinct and identifiable population, rather than a radical potentiality for all—lesbians and gays can demand recognition and equal rights within the existing social system.
What is Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity?
For Butler, gender is not something that you "are"; instead, it's something that you do. Or to say it another way, gender is not a noun, it's a verb.
How did Michel Foucault influence Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity?
Foucault offered the influential claim that the homosexual was not a name that referred to a natural kind of being. Rather, he argued that such an identity category was constructed by, and thus emerged out of, nineteenth-century scientific and medical discourses
Jay Prosser's article "Judith Butler: Queer Feminism, Transgender, and the Transubstantiation of Sex" is connected to which broader debate?
the debate between Transgender and Transsexual Theorists (and, by extension, between Modernist and Postmodernist thinkers) on the topic of stable notions of identity.
How does Prosser define "trans studies"?
Trans studies represents a broad arena of theorizing about any number of trans categories, including transvestism, transsexualism, and transgenderism, among many others.
Why does Prosser prefer to use "trans studies" as an umbrella term as opposed to the more popular word "transgender"?
"Transgender seems to increasingly signify a 'focus on a particular category of persons/issues within or under the coverall label 'Trans,' who 'do gender' in non-normative ways'....Transgender theorizing in this setting means a Postmodern or Queer version of Trans Studies"
"Changing your sex does not mean changing your gender." Explain.
Margaret O'Hartigan, in her essay "Changing Sex Is Not Changing Gender", along with most transsexuals (either pre or post-operative), argues that she changed her bodily sex from male to female, but did this to maintain and enhance a gender continuity—her deeply-felt sense of femininity. As a result, she refuses the term transgender outright, as she does not see herself as engaged in gender-crossing.
Which cateogry does Prosser beleive to be more malleable-- gender or sex? Why?
Prosser proposes that bodily sex is a malleable category, but gender is a definitive home. While bodily sex is flexible, Prosser urges conformity with the normative gender binary and recognizes the value of "gendered realness." This way of thinking sees gender identity as being a deep essence.
What assumption did Judith Butler make in Gender Trouble that was critiqued by Prosser?
"the assumption that transgender is queer is subversive". Or as Prosser further explains: "It should be understood that, although it never makes such an argument, Gender Trouble does set up the conditions for this syllogism: transgender = gender performativity = queer = subversive"
What does Prosser mean when he critiques Butler for assuming that trans identities are subversive?
There are many trans identified individuals who do not aim nor wish to be subversive. What they want is to be authentically themselves. This requires that they "straighten" (not queer) the relationship between their sex and gender.
How does Cathy Choen critique queer politics in "Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics?"?
She argues that queer politics has unsuccessfully challenged heteronormativity, because it has operated on a "single oppression framework"—namely, an exclusive or primary focus on sexuality resulting in the dichotomy of queer vs. straight (or more broadly the "us" vs. "them" dichotomy)
How and why, according to Cohen, do queer politics operate within a "single oppression framework"?
According to Cohen, this binary/dichotomy has emphasized an analysis of sexuality to the exclusion of other important categories of difference that are significant in analyzing hegemonic (sexual) norms (e.g. how does race or class impact how people experience their sexhttp://quizlet.com/21189490/edit/#add-rowual identities?).
What are the drawbacks, according to Cohen, in utilizing a single oppression framework in queer politics?
The use of such a framework oversimplifies, that is, creates a monolithic understanding of heterosexuality and, thus, overlooks the importance of creating a transformative queer coalition that includes nonnormative" heterosexuals.
What did Reid-Pharr argue in his article "Dinge"?
Reid-Pharr argues that race and racism inform all social relations, including intimate/erotic relations. As he bluntly puts it: "We do not escape race and racism when we f***."
What is Reid-Pharr's goal in writing "Dinge"?
to make whiteness visible, to deconstruct it as an invisible norm that structures all social interactions/relations:
"Why, I have asked, do we see so little work by white gays and lesbians that directly addresses the question of cross-racial desire? I have suggested that we might at least begin an answer by paying attention to the way in which speaking to these issues, admitting to the reality of beauty that is other than white, throws into disarray the idea of whiteness as universal."
What is Reid-Pharr's ultimate point for his article?
By insisting that whiteness plays a role in structuring gay black-white sexual relations, Reid-Pharr is calling on white queer theorists to pay much more attention to race within erotic bodily relations.
He says: "We must refuse to allow the production of a queer theory so reified that it does nothing to challenge the way we interact , the way we think, and the way we f***. We must insist on a queer theory that takes the queer body and what we do with it as a primary focus"
What were the Stonewall Riots?
A series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn (NYC). They are widely considered the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for gay and lesbian rights in the United States.
What is the main difference between the gay liberation and homophile movements?
The homophile movement had come to advocate assimilation while gay liberation was constructed around the notion of a distinct gay identity. Gay liberation is much more concerned with the assertion and creation of a new sense of identity—one based on pride in being gay.
What strategy does Judith Butler employ to argue gender is performative?
Denaturalization (Identity categories, such as gender and sexuality, are not "natural" or inherent to us; we have no natural self or core).
What is the difference between essentialist and social
constructionist though in queer studies?
Social constructionists believe that although same-sex love has occurred in all cultures, the concept of certain people being predisposed to love only one sex (and thus being "homosexuals" or "heterosexuals") is an inaccurate concept invented by modern Western society, and does not accurately describe how human sexuality develops in other cultures. They believe that a person who describes themself as homo or hetero and orients their sexual behavior toward only one gender does this only because their culture has fed them certain ideas about sexual identity.
Essentialists believe that the concept of people being "homosexuals" and "heterosexuals" accurately reflects an unchangeable reality which holds true for all cultures in all of history, and thus that a person's homosexuality or heterosexuality constitutes an unchangeable "essence" rather than a socially constructed characteristic.
What is the paradigmatic man or woman?
Male sex=masculine gender=attracted to women.
Female sex=feminine gender=attracted to men.
separation into two opposing categories; dualistic division which usually serves some form of essentialism.
Why is the emergence of urban homosexual communities/culture/social identity difficult to pinpoint?
Theorists tend to focus on male examples of homosexuality and the formation of female homosexuality or lesbianism does not follow exactly the formation of male homosexuality.
How did the AIDS epidemic stress the importance of sexual acts over identity?
While male homosexuality and AIDS were nearly synonymous during the crisis, men who have sex with other men but did not identify with the gay community could not be targeted as a group like gay men. Therefore, the treatment of AIDS had to focus on universal risk behaviors.