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Radiology Board Review
Terms in this set (66)
The ejection of an electron from an atom, which produces charged-ion pairs or free radicals
1 second = __ impulses of xrays
Amps (mA) describe the ____ of electrons flowing
Voltage (kPv) describes the ____ of electrons flowing
The higher the voltage, the ____ the potential difference
Only ____ and ____ affect penetration (quality)
kVp and filtration
In aluminum filtration the number of photons ____.
As the beam spreads, the number of photons ____.
More phtons = ____ density.
Energy = ____.
The more aluminum in the machine, the ____ the film.
A short scale of contrast means mostly ____ (high visual contrast).
black and whites
A long scale of contrast means ____ (low visual contrast).
many shades of gray
What are the only 2 things contrast can be affected by?
aluminum filtration and kVp
A short scale contrast results from ____ kVp and aluminum.
A long scale contrast results from ____ kVp and aluminum.
The more kVp or aluminum, the more steps or ____.
shades of gray
These produce the sharpest images with the least magnification: ____ focal spot, ____ object-to-film distance, ____ target(sorce)-to-film distance, film and tooth ____, beam ____ to film
small, short, large, parallel, perpendicular
Area of unsharpness
In taking 2 radiographs, if the object moves in the same direction as the tube head, the object is ____ (SLOB).
In taking 2 radiographs, if the object moves in the opposite direction as the tube head, the object is ____ (SLOB).
Inverse square law formula
original energy/new energy = (new distance) squared/(original distance) squared
In any distance is doubled or halved, the original energy changes by a factor of __.
Anatomically, the sinus floor doesn't turn vertical until the ____.
Radiopaque or radiolucent? sinus floor
Zygomatic arch aka ____
The mental foramen is inferior between what 2 teeth?
Radiopaque or radiolucent? genial tubercles
Backwards film placement (looks like a grid) aka:
A film exposed to light is going to be ____.
An unexposed film is going to be ____.
What error would be if teeth look like they've been cut in half?
Panoramic error: anterior teeth look blurred and thin (anorexic)
too far anterior
Panoramic error: anterior teeth are blurred and wide (pudgy)
too far posterior
Panoramic error: reverse curve of occlusion (frowning)
chin too high
Panoramic error: exaggerated curve of occlusion (joker)
chin too low
Panoramic error: imposing air space (space between apex of maxillary roots and hard palate)
tongue not placed against palate
Panoramic error: imposing spinal shadow
patient slumped forward
Silver halide crystals (Bromide crystals) on both sides of film
What solution turns only exposed crystals to metallic silver
What solution removes undeveloped or unexposed crystals?
What would happen if the fixer is exhausted or not replenished after time, problem is poor wash?
Film has ____ resolution than digital
Most common mechanism of damage in humans (aka free radicals in water)
Rapid turnover rate or mitosis rate of cells ____ damage, undifferentiated cells have ____ damage.
Time between xray exposure and maximum damage observed
What tissues have the highest sensitivity to radiation (including the highest) (5)?
lymph, bone marrow, intestines, mucous membranes
What tissues have the lowest sensitivity to radiation (including the lowest) (5)?
heart, optic lens, mature bone, mature cartilage
Adverse reactions of the body to radiation never return exactly to original state, therefore build up over lifetime
MPD non-occupational (fetus of auxiliary)
What 2 units of radiation exposure are on a docimeter report?
Rem, Sievert (Sv.)
as low as reasonably achievable
Each alphabetical film group is two times ____ than the previous film group and needs ____ as much radiation exposure
Panoramic intensifying screens ____ the amount of radiation.
What device reduces scatter and sizes beam?
Beam size at the patient's face can be no larger than ____ inches.
What is the advantage of rectangular collimation?
reduces the area of patient's skin surface exposed by 60-65%
How much aluminum filtration is needed for up to 70 kVp?
How much aluminum filtration is needed for more than 70 kVp?
T or F Walls do not require lead lining.
The lead apron absorbs __% of scatter that would have reached the reproductive tissues. Lead equivalent to __ mm.
90%, 0.25 mm
In the electromagnetic family, the shorter the group's wavelength, the ____ the energy.
What separates xrays from the rest of the electromagnetic family?
xrays produce ionization
Movement of electrons (-) along a wire toward a (+) charge which changes direction 60 times per second
Number of xray photons given off in a period of time
quantity of beam
Penetrating power/strength of the xray photons
quality of beam
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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