27 terms

Swine Production

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Swine Terminology
Mature Male: Boar
Mature Female: Sow
Young Male: Boar Pig
Young Female: Guilt
Newborn: Pig
Castrated Male: Barrow
Group: Herd
Act of Parturation: Farrowing
Pork= the meat from a pig/hog
Pork Cuts
Jowl, Boston Butt, Picnic, Loin, Spareribs, Bacon, Ham, Hind feet
Worldwide Swine Industry
1.China
2. European Union
3. United States
4. Brazil
5. Canada
The U.S. Swine Industry
-Hogs are the 4th most important money generator in food animal agriculture
-Hogs generate 6% of all U.S. farm cash receipts
-Hogs rank in the top 5 commodities in 14 states
-The U.S. produces 9% of the world's largest pork with 6.2% of the world's hogs
The Purpose of the U.S. Swine Industry
-The primary purpose of the swine industry is to use surplus grain production and by product feeds to produce edible protein
-Hogs are the most efficient converters of grain to red mean of all the livestock species
-Classified as red meat by the nutritional value
The US Swine Industry State Rankings (based on total hog inventory)
1.Iowa
2. North Carolina
3. Minnesota
4. Illinois
5. Indiana
*Mostly in the midwest due to being close to the feed source
The Swine Industry in California
-California ranks 30th in hog production
-Most producers are small, but a few large operations exist
-A few California Purebred Seedstock Producers have had a profound impact on the purebred industry nationwide
Segments of the Swine Industry
Farrow-to-Finish Operation
-Most common type of operation
-Breeding herd is maintained
-Litters are farrowed year-round
-Pigs are produced and fed to market weight on the same farm
-Market Hogs (230-280 lbs) are marketed to meat packer
-Some operations of this type will have on-farm harvesting facilities (not uncommon in California)
-Artificial environments are not nearly as significant due to artificial environments
Segments of the Swine Industry
Farrow-to-wean, Feeder Pig & Roaster Producer
-Breeding herd is maintained
-Pigs are raised to weaning (10-15 lbs) or to feeder pig size (35-50 lbs) then moved or sold to feeder pig finishing operations
-A variation of this in California is the "Roaster Pig" Operation. Pigs are raised to about 90 lbs then sold to the roaster market
Segments of the Swine Industry
Feeder Pig Finisher
-Feeder pigs are acquired as weaners or at 25 to 50 pounds from feeder pic producers and fed to market weight
-Hogs are marketed at 230-280 lbs to meat packer
Segments of the Swine Industry
Purebred or Seedstock Producer
-Similar to farrow-to-finish operation in facilities and operating structure
-Primary products marketed are boars, gilts and show pigs.
-May also market semen
*Trying to sell the reproductive pigs
*Not harvesting, not feeding
*Just reproducing the boars & sows
Segments of the Swine Industry
Integrated Corporate Production
-All aspects of production are included under the same ownership in order to maintain biosecurity
-Finished market hogs weighing 230-280 lbs
Segments of the Swine Industry
Meat Packer
-Acquire finished hogs at 230-280 lbs
-Harvest Market Hogs
-Depending on the facility and its marketing structure, the packing plant may market
1. Whole Carcasses or Carcass sides
2. Wholesale Cuts
3. Retail Cuts
4. Pre-cooked Products
Segments of the Swine Industry
Club Pig Producer
-Similar to feeder pig producer in facilities and operating structure
-Primary Products marketed are show pigs weighing 60-90 lbs
-Sell pigs to youth groups at a premium price (usually $250.00 or more per pig)
The Ultimate Target
-Market Hogs weighing 230-280 lbs (average 260 lbs)
-USDA Grade 1
-Acceptable Lean Quality (Color, Firmness, Marbling)
The Nutritional Value of Pork
-Pork is 31% lower in fat than it was 20 years ago...Caused by food being fed to pigs
-Caused by food being fed to pigs
-Lean pork cuts compare favorably with chicken breast and better than chicken thigh in regard to fat content
The Nutritional Value of Pork
-A 3oz serving of lean pork contributes the following proportions of the recommended daily dietary allowance:
-50% of protein
Swine Breeds
-A breed refers to a grouping of animals within a domestic species that have been selected for certain characteristics and that breed true for those characteristics
-In commercial farrow to finish operations and feeder pig operations, pigs of one breed are bred to animals of another breed to form crossbreds
-The primary advantages of crossbreeding are heterosis (hybrid vigor) and breeding complementarity
Breed Types
Terminal (sire) breeds
-breeds for which primary selection emphasis is on traits related to growth, efficiency, and carcass characteristics
Maternal Breeds
-Breeds for which primary selection emphasis is on traits related to reproductive efficiency
Breed Ranking
(by registered numbers)
1. Yorkshire
2. Duroc
3. Hampshire
4. Landrace
Yorkshire
-Most popular breed in the U.S.
-Known as the mother breed
-Excel in traits related to reproductive efficienct (fertility, litter size, milking ability, return to estus after weaning)
-Some terminal lines exist
-White hogs with erect ears
-Maternal type
-Yorkshire Breed
Duroc
-Often crossed with Yorkshire or Landrace females to make F1 females for commercial herds
-Often used as the terminal cross sire in 2-way and 3-way crossbreeding systems
-known for growth rate, efficiency, and carcass quality (marbling)
-Terminal Type
-Duroc Breed
Hampshire
-Often crossed with Yorkshire or Landrace females to make F1 Blue Butt females for commercial herds
-often used as the terminal cross sire in 2-way and 3-way crossbreeding systems
-Excel in leanness and muscle
Landrace
-Very popular in commercial crossbreeding programs
-Known for exceptional length of body, large litters, and great milking ability
-Referred to as "America's Sow Herd"
-Maternal Type
-Landrace Breed
Crossbreeding Swine
-A mix of crossing two or more parent breeds
-Purpose is for Heterosis (hybrid vigor)
Swine Reproduction
Gestation Period: 114 days
Estrous Cycle: 21 days
Estrous Period: 2-3 days
Age at Puberty: 5-7 months
In most herds, gilts are bred at 8 months of age with the goal of farrowing at 1 year of age
Swine Reproduction
-Farrowing interval (days between farrowings) should be 142 days or less with a 3 week weaning program
- 21 day lactation period +7 day rebreeding period +114 day gestation period =142 days
-A highly efficient sow will average 2.5 litters per year
*365 days/ 142 day farrowing interval = 2.5 litters per year
* A realistic herd average would be around 2.3 litters per year
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