Memory: Atkinson and Shiffrin - The multi-store model of memory.
Memory consists of a number of separate stores and that memory processes are sequential.
Sensory memory: register sensory information. 1-3 seconds. Modality specific. Only small mount transferred into short-term memory store.
STM: Limited capacity and duration, 6-12 seconds.
If rehearsed goes to LTM, if not it's lost.
LTM: believed to be indefinite duration, unlimited capacity.
Glanzer and Cunitz:
Aim: Investigate recency effect in free recall.
Procedure: Lab, participants heard a list of items, but right after recall it.
Result: Recalled words from beginning, and the end. U-shaped curve.
Amnesia = no new memories, H.M
Support multi-stored memory
Very simple, LTM maybe serveral
Baddeley and Hitch - The working memory model
STM is unitary and passive information processing
The central executive: Controlling system, monitors and coordinates operations of other components. Limited capacity.
the episodic buffer: Limied-capacity, conscious awareness, episodic memory.
The phological loop: Verbal and auditory information. Inner voice and inner ear.
the visuo-spatial sketchpad: Inner eye.
Baddeley and Hitch: Paricipants answer more and more questions about simple letter combinations that were shown the same time. Reaction time increased = more difficult.
Finding: No significant difference in reaction time between the group who were asked to repeat the or two numbers from 1-6. But group with repeat random numbers did worse.
Overload problems for the central executive.
Which part linked to underlying memory problems.
Unclear role of central executive.
Compare: serveral stores STM temporary., sensory, rehersal, short term memory = before long term, limited duration and capacity.
Contrast: Entire memory system vs STM
Simple STM vs. Complex
Brown and Kulik: The theory of flash memory
Hard to forget, highly accurate, like a photograph, Place, ongoing activity, informant, own affect, other affect, aftermath.
Brown and Kulik
Aim: Investigate whether shocking events are recalled more vividly and accurately than other events.
Procedure: Questionnaires, 80 participants to recall circumstances where they had learned of shocking events.
Results: Vivid memories of where, what, how they felt when Kennedy was shot and of sudden death in families.
Unexpected and personally events.
However, discussed and rehearsed after the event, so becomes many memories of the real event.