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Environment Exam 2
Terms in this set (74)
What is the maximum population of a given species that a habitat can sustain indefinitely?
As as a population approaches its carrying capacity, it's __________ becomes a(n) _________ of fluctuating logistic growth.
What happens when a population overshoots the carrying capacity?
the population sharply declines
What is the projected world population in 2050?
What is it called when as countries industrialize and develop economically and consequently per capita income rises, poverty declines, and populations grow more slowly?
What is it called when competing species evolve specialized traits that allow them to use shared resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places?
What is the single greatest threat to most species?
Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
Name six invasive species found in the great lakes region
zebra mussels, sea Lampreys, phragmites, hogweed, purple loostrife, and asian carp
What does HIPPCO stand for?
Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation, Invasive (nonnative species), Population growth and increasing use of resources, Pollution, Climate change, Overexploitation
What are the five ways species interact?
interspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism
What is the most common type of interaction between species?
What is it called when two species compete for the same resources and their niches overlap?
What is the solution to interspecific competition?
What is it called when an individual of one species feeds directly on another plant or animal species?
What occurs when one species feeds on the body of, or the energy used by, another organism?
What is it called when two species behave in ways that benefit both?
What is called when one species benefits from species interaction, and the other is not affected or harmed at all?
When air plants known as epiphytes attach themselves to the trunks or branches of large trees to access sunlight, what would this be an example of?
Birds that ride on the backs of large animals (African buffalo) and remove pests would be an example of what type of interaction?
Bacteria that live in our intestines and help us digest food would be an example of what type of interaction?
When populations of two different species interact over a long period of time and changes appear in the gene pool of one species end up leading to changes in the gene pool of the other, what is it called?
Bats and moths are examples of species that have __________.
What is the role the species plays in an ecosystem and everything that affects its survival and reproduction?
What are species with narrow niches that live in only a few types of habitats and are more prone to extinction because of their inability to tolerate environmental change?
What are species with broad niches that can live in a wide range of environments and are less prone to extinction?
Some amphibian species are good _________ species.
What species are sensitive to changes in an ecosystem and provide early warnings of community and ecosystem change?
What kind of species affects the type and abundance of other species in an ecosystem?
What kinds of species are responsible for the pollination of flowering species (butterflies, honeybees) and the regulation of populations of other species (wolves, alligators)?
American Alligators and Sharks are examples of __________ species.
What is the formula for population change?
population change = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
When a species has enough individuals to survive in the short term, but not long term, what is this species classified as?
When a species has so few individual survivors that it could soon become extinct, what is this species classified as?
What is one of the most lasting environmental threats?
What is the they key factor in determining population size (average number of children born to women)?
What is the replacement level total fertility rate?
What are the three factors population size can change based on?
births/deaths, immigration, and emigration
What is a population's ability to survive under various physical and chemical environmental conditions?
What is the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem, or no bottom sediment in an aquatic system that
takes hundreds to thousands of years called?
primary ecological succession
What occurs when communities or ecosystems have been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, but retain some soil or bottom sediments that enriches biodiversity of communities and ecosystems by increasing species diversity and interaction among species and enhances sustainability?
secondary ecological succession
Density-dependent factors become more important as _____________ increases.
What are two density-independent factors?
drought and climate
Parasites and diseases spreading more easily and sexually reproducing individuals finding mates more easily are both ______________ factors.
What are the three options for a population when it shoots past the carrying capacity?
stabilize its population, switch to new resources, or move to a new geographic area
What is overshoot and dieback caused by?
a reproductive time lag
Why are bacteria becoming resistant to many of today's anti-biotic drugs?
What is the ability of one or more organisms in a population to tolerate chemicals designed to kill the population?
Why does genetic resistance develop in bacteria and insect species?
they rapidly produce large numbers of offspring
What is the maximum number of people who can live in reasonable freedom and comfort indefinitely without decreasing the ability of the earth to sustain future generations called?
cultural carrying capacity
What is the current world population?
Hawks feeding at different times than owls for the same prey is an example of __________.
The human tape worm is an example of ______________.
A pilot fish and a shark is an example of ___________.
Honey bees and the flowers they pollinate is an example of ____________.
How many times the background rate of extinction is the extinction rate expected to be during this century?
We are losing between how many species per year?
We are losing between how many species per day?
Four reasons the honey bee has declined:
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), competition with Africanized Honey Bees, pesticides, microwave radiation
Why is the world population growing despite the fact the women, worldwide, are having fewer babies?
the total fertility rate has fallen but is still above replacement level of 2.1%
Exponential curves are _______ shaped.
Logistic curves are _____ shaped.
What is the gradual change in species composition in a given area?
What occurs in a place that has not been previously occupied by organisms?
primary ecological succession
What occurs in an area that already has soil or bottom sediment (often after a fire or other natural disaster)?
secondary ecological succession
Disease and predation have more of an effect when a population is __________.
Hurricanes, floods or other natural disasters are examples of ____________.
density-independent limiting factors
The process of bacteria becoming anti-biotic resistant is an example of _________.
What phase of the demographic transition model is it when a population grows very slowly because of a high birth rate (that compensates for high infant mortality) and a high death rate?
What phase of the demographic transition model is it when population grows rapidly because birth rates are still high, but death rates drop because of improved food production and health?
What phase of the demographic transition model is it when population growth slows as both birth and death rates drop because of improved food production, health, and education?
What phase of the demographic transition model is it when population growth levels off and then decreases, as birth rates equal and then fall below death rates?
What has helped to reduce the international trade of many threatened animals?
What was ratified or accepted by 193 countries (but as of 2014, not by the United States) and legally commits participating governments to reduce the global rate of biodiversity loss, equitably share the benefits from use of the world's genetic resources, and prevent invasive species?
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
What are the two aspects of stability/sustainability?
inertia (persistence), resilience
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