Bias may be an inevitable part of the research process.
Gender bias: alpha bias
Exaggerates differences between the sexes, e.g. Sociobiological theory.
Gender bias: beta bias
Minimises differences between the sexes, e.g. Kohlberg's theory and fight/flight.
Normal behaviour is judged from the male standard, e.g. Female aggression explained by PMS.
Evaluation: implications of gender bias
May validate stereotypes and discrimination, e.g. Research into PMS.
Evaluation: sexism within the research process
Research questions oriented to male concerns. Preference for results showing gender differences. Lab experiment disadvantages women.
Being 'up front' about one's biases and preconceptions can reduce gender bias (Dambrin and Lambert).
Gender differences presented as 'fixed' in nature, often politically motivated.
Evaluation: feminist psychology
Sorrel proposes that research should be collaborative and in context.
Any underlying characteristic of human beings that is capable of being applied to all, despite differences of experience and upbringing. Gender bias and culture bias threaten the universality of findings in psychology.