Terms in this set (8)
Universality and bias (revisited)
Mainstream psychology has generally ignored cultural differences.
When one's own culture is seen as the 'norm' or 'standard', e.g. Ainsworth's ideal attachment type.
Berry suggested that psychology has taken an etic approach (e.g. Ainsworth) and should be emic (acknowledging cultural relativism).
Distinction may be too simple.
May no longer apply; Takano and Osaka found no evidence.
Evaluation: cultural relativism versus universality
It should not be assumed that all human behaviours are culturally specific, there are some universals - such as aspects of attachment and the facial expression of emotion.
Evaluation: unfamiliarity with research tradition
Demand characteristics are more likely in an unfamiliar situation.
Evaluation: operationalisation of variables
Some behaviours may not be expressed in the same way, e.g. Displays of aggression may be culturally relative.
Evaluation: challenging implicit assumptions
Researcher's own cultural views may be challenged. Taken-for-granted assumptions may not be universal.