62 terms

Bio Final Sem. 2

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A cross between individuals with different traits to bring together their best characteristics is called
Hybridization
Crossing individuals with similar characteristics so that those characteristics will appear in the offspring
Inbreeding
Varieties of purebred dogs are maintained by
Selective breeding
Bacteria often contain small circular molecules of DNA known as
Plasmids
Scientist who specialize in the study of fossils
Paleontologist
Earths first atmosphere contained little or no
Oxygen
Which event occurred at the end of the Paleozoic Era
Mass extinction
The process that produces a similar appearance among unrelated groups of organisms is
Convergent evolution
To be useful as an index fossil, a species must have existed for
Short period over a wide geographic range
The Mesozoic era occurred
After the Paleozoic era
The age of mammals occurred during the
Cenozoic
Dinosaurs were dominant during the
Mesozoic era
In addition to observing living organisms, Darwin studied the preserved remains of ancient organism, called
Fossils
Fitness is a result of
Adaptation
Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue are
Homologous structures
Natural Selection acts directly on
Phenotypes
The separations of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called
Geographic isolation
According to Darwinian theory, evolution occurs by
Natural selection
The success of an organism in surviving and reproducing is a measure of its
Fitness
Traits that are controlled by more than one gene, such as human height are known as
Polygenic traits
The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population forms a
Gene pool
A group of individuals of the same species that interbreed make up a
Population
The evolution of Darwin's finches is an example of
Speciation
Which of the following shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
Cladogram
All of life on Earth exists in a region known
The biosphere
Autotrophs are organisms that
Use energy they take in from the environment to make their own food
The series of steps in which a large fish eats a small fish that has eaten algae is a
Food chain
What animals eat both producers and consumers
Omnivores
Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following processes EXCEPT
Photosynthesis
A food web consists of many interconnected food chains. Which of the following represents a food chain from the food web?
Grass>caterpillar>robin>fox
The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation within a particular region is its
Climate
The greens house effect causes an increase in
Temperature
All the biotic and abiotic factors in a pond form a(an)
Ecosystem
A relationship in which one organism is helped and another organism is neither helped nor hurt is called
Commensalism
A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit is called
Mutualism
In a tropical rainforest, the dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees is called the
Canopy
Organisms that live near or on the ocean floor are called
Benthos
Estuaries
Contain a mixture of fresh water and salt water
The movement of individuals into an area is called
Immigration
A resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes is called
Nonrenewable
The place where a neuron transfers an impulse to another cell is the
Synapse
The central nervous system consists of the
Brain and spinal cord
Voluntary or conscious activities of the body are controlled by the
Cerebrum
The semicircular canals and the two tiny sacs located behind them help maintain
Equilibrium
The body's most important nonspecific defense against pathogens is
Skin
A substance that triggers an immune response is a(an)
B cell
The tough layer of connective tissue that hold bones together are known as
Periosteum
Strips of tough connective tissue that hold bones together are known as
Ligaments
Joints that allow for circular movement are
Ball-and-socket joints
Which of the following is NOT part of the axial skeleton
Pelvis
Which of the following types is muscle generally remain in a state of partial contraction when you are keeping your legs straight
Skeletal muscle
Where is cardiac muscle tissue located in the body
Heart
The upper chambers of the heart are the
Atria
Blood leaving the heart for the body passes through a large blood vessel known as the
Aorta
Which cells are able to protect the body by engulfing foreign cells or producing antibodies
White blood cells
Much of the mechanical digestion take place in the
Mouth
Where does the process of chemical digestion begin
Mouth
Water is extracted from digested food in the body primarily by the
Large intestine
Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair and maintenance are called
Nutrients
Glands that release hormones into the blood are part of the
Endocrine system
The principle male sex hormone is
Testosterone
After the eight week of development, the human embryo is known as a(an)
Fetus