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Human Motor Development
Chapter 1 to 15
Terms in this set (513)
a process through which we pass, the changes in our ability to move and our movement in general as we proceed through the lifespan.
Mountain of Motor Development
an approximation or representation of human motor development, a starting point for discussion, dissection, and even testing of human motor development.
Newell's Constraints Model
a way of looking at motor development that emphasizes factors that limit, contain or help shape movement throughout life.
a way of structuring research in-which human subjects are examined repeatedly at different ages and different times.
a way of structing research where human subjects from various treatment groups or age groups are examined on the same measure at approximately the same time.
changes that occur as we pass through life.
organizational changes in the function of an individual's organs and tissues that result subsequent changes in human behavior.
when programs are tailored to meet the needs of children rather than expecting children to adjust to the demands of the program.
the developmental direction of the human being from the top of the body downward.
the developmental direction of the human being from those points close to the body's center to the periphery.
a way of studying human movement in which the movement outcome is emphasized.
a way of studying human movement in which the movement itself is emphasized.
According to Clark and Whitall, the first period in the history of motor development, the maturational period, was characterized by an emphasis on the study of the biological processes that were believed to shape human development.
One of the first models of motor develpment was devised by Bryant Cratty (1970); it was based on constraints, the factors that limit, constrain, or help shape development.
The Skillful period is the highest level of development on the Mountain of Motor Development.
The metaphor of a Mountain or Motor Development, according to its authors, applies to everyone, even those who experience some form of atypical development.
A cross-sectional research design examines one group of human subjects repeatedly across time.
The affective domain of human development, according to Bloom, is largely concerned with the intellectual aspects of human development.
maturation is an increase in physical size.
Proximodistal refers to human development proceeding from those points close to the center of the body to those points close to the periphery.
In humans the first 22 days following birth are referred to as the neonatal period.
Adolescence is initiated by the onset of puberty.
Cephalocaudal refers to growth in the human body that proceeds from the....
head toward the feet.
Middle adulthood is characterized as ages....
An example of motor development research is...
the administration of a reaction-time test to 15-year-olds and 25-year-olds and comparing their test performances.
The ability to coordinate left and right arms in the performance of a movement task best illustrates the concept known as...
according to the authors of the mountain of Motor Development, the ascent up the mountain begins...
long before we arrive at its base.
Clark and Whitall distinguish four historical periods of motor development. In Order, they are...
the neonatal period encompasses birth to...
22 days of life.
fine motor refers to...
movements performed as a function of small muscle groups.
the period of the Mountain of Motor Development that emphasizes the emergence of voluntary movement following the inhibition of reflexes is the...
proximodistal refers to growth in the human body that proceeds from the...
center or midline toward the periphery of the body.
growth is a(n)...
increase in physical size.
the three major domains of human development according to Bloom include...
cognitive, affective, psychomotor.
Growth that occurs as a result of change in cell number is...
Growth that occurs as a result of change in cell size is...
Motor behavior can be defined as...
the subdiscipline that stresses the principles of human skilled movement generated at a behavioral level of analysis.
a term used to refer to those movements that are initiated by an electrical impulse from the higher brain centers like the motor cortex.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development; it lasts for the first two years of life and is characterized by knowing and thinking emerging as a result of the child's actions.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development; it lasts for nearly five years and is characterized by imaginative play and the child's increased use of symbols.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third major stage of cognitive development; it lasts for approximately four years and is characterized by the individual's enhanced ability to decenter attention.
a process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based on their present interoperation of the world.
the individual attempts to adjust existing thought structures to account for new experiences.
an ability to arrange a set of variables based on a certain characteristic.
a possible fifth stage of cognitive development that is characterized by discovering new questions, not just dealing with larger quantities of information.
unintentional or automatic memory, or memory that is outside of our awareness.
awareness of factual information
the cognitive ability to consider self and an objet in simple situations in the past, present and future, allowing contemplation of activities.
an ability to realize that certain properties of a substance remain unchanged when its apperance is rearranged in a superficial way.
The highest stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development is the concrete operational stage.
Adaptation, according to Piaget, is the adjusting to demands of the environment and the intellectualizing of that adjustment through two complimentary acts, assimilation and accommodation.
Piaget's work has been criticized because he did not use a lifespan orientation.
Piaget's sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth through the first two years of life.
According to Piaget, primary circular reactions are repetitive and are characterized by an intense interest in the surrounding environment.
The stage in Piaget's theory that emphasizes children's limitations rather than their attributes is formal operations.
Seriation is the ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic.
According to most experts, the most widely accepted view of intellectual decline is that it is gradual, consistent, and pervasive for most older adults.
Implicit memory is unintentional, automatic, or without awareness.
Implicit and explicit memory appear to follow very different general developmental paths in adulthood, with explicit memory declining and implicit memory staying stable.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development is...
in the older years of an adult...
response time slows and cognitive and motor development interact reciprocally.
knowing that an object has not increased in weight when the spatial orientation (or shape) has changed is known as...
conservation of weight.
the most important characteristic of the preoperational stage of development is...
Piaget's theory of cognitive development...
has four major stages; was largely based on observations of his children; and categorizes similar behaviors into stages.
according to Piaget, the most serious "deficiency" of preoperational thought is...
the major accomplishment of the formal operational stage is...
the ability to consider ideas not based on reality.
according to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development that occures between the ages of 8 and 11 years is...
the concrete operational stage of cognitive development is...
the third of Piaget's stages.
according to Piaget's, the process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based on tehir present interpretation of the world is...
the term motor rather than psychomotor is used in our text because...
motor includes movement initiated in the lower brain centers.
the preoperational stage of development occurs between the ages of...
2 and 5 years.
the process by which human beings learn who they are and how they are connected to the social world in which they live.
how much we believe ourselves to be competent, successful, significant, and worthy, or having like for ourselves.
the overal value that one places on oneself as a person.
an activity that is intrinsically motivated, inherently unproductive, spontaneous, and voluntary.
where children or adolescents interact as equals, transitory in nature, and a particularly powerful social force during adolescence.
when an expectation for one's own behavior differs from that deemed appropriate by society.
gender role identity
expectations for behavior based on being a male or a female.
perceiving a soruce for one's positive or negative experience in sports or physical activity.
a formerly prevalent view in which sports were perceived as potentially dangerous, particularly for females, who were considered more delicate.
the act of acquiring new behaviors by modeling the actions of others.
a negative stereotyping of the elderly that can lead to discrimination.
a wasting away of muscle mass that is a direct result of physical inactivity.
the first year of life is characterized by relatively asocial or egocentric behavior, with social activity increasing across the first twelve months.
According to Harter, young children are capable of making meaningful and consistent judgements about their global self worth.
expectations for behaviors based on gender start early in childhood and often depend on the quality of a child's association with the parent of the same sex.
girls and women tend to attribute positive performance in physical activity to external sources and negative performance to personal ones.
the victorian influence drives from the victorian era when sports were thought to be too dangerous for girls and women.
Once an individual begins regular employment, marries, or has a relatively permanent companion and/or has children, the tendency for decreased physical activity and physical regression increases.
generally, the odler we become, the more physically activity we are.
generally, less than 24% of the dcline associated with aging may be attributable to disuse atrophy
the exercise-aging cycle illustrates the relationship between getting older and becoming more physically active.
A well-designed training program for any age group in adulthood can generally increase muscle strength and endurance and increase cardiovascular endurance.
a set of expectations about human behaviors is formally called...
according to a 2007 study on Title IX and its effects...
about two-thirds the number of female athletes participate in school sports compared to males.
Acuiring new behaviors by modeling the action of other is..
not important for motor development throughout the lifespan AND social learning.
when children are involved with associative play, they...
exhibit an awareness of each other and begin to exchange toys, but without a group goal.
according to hater (1988), self-esteem...
contributes to global self-worth.
physical apperance and social acceptance are critical to self-worth during...
all of the selections are correct.
according to harter (1988), children's self-worth during midchildhood changes because...
cognitive capabilities increase.
parallel play is a more mature level of play than...
the first year of life is considered to be...
an egocentric or asocial period.
ostrow, jones, and spiker's (1981) study on the effects of age and societal expectations reports that...
baltant age barriers exist about active participation in adulthood.
according to barry, rich, and carlson (1993), functional adaptations to exercise in frail elderly patients include..
decrease in resting heart rate, totall cholesterol, and blood pressure.
movement choices affect our...
ability to fit in socially; self-identity and social mobility; and attitudes concerning masculinity and femininity.
the most important means of socialization is...
greendorfer and ewing (1981) examined race and gender differences in children's socialization into sports and found...
considerable differences in socialization depending on race and gender.
according to healthy people 2010, among Americans 18 years old and older, the percentage of individuals who engage in no leisure-time physical activity is...
according to research by green dorfer and lewko (1978), a critical factor in sport selections for both males and females is their...
the victorian influence primarily refers to current societal attitudes concerning movement participation and...
peer groups are...
all of the selections are correct.
morally relevant behaviors that positively influence others well being, such as sharing and cooperating.
cognitive processes that individuals use when thinking about moral dilemmas.
virtues and qualities that individuals posses such as honesty, responsibility, and compassion.
social learning theory
an academic point of view that suggests that morality reflects displays of appropriate behaviors that align with society's values and norms, such as showing respect for others and being honest.
structural developmental theory
an academic point of view that defines morality as expressing care and concern for others' well-being when reasoning about moral dilemmas.
an individual's choice of action relative to competing options.
a potent means of learning moral beliefs and actions which includes watching parents, teammates, coaches, and high-level athletes and how they act in morally desirable or undesirable ways.
how individuals define success in a particular domain.
an individual's ability to recognize moral situations.
qualitative changes in moral functioning.
quantitative changes in moral functioning.
an area of concern for people's right and duties revolving around questions of justice, fairness, and the welfare of others.
moral issues revolve around questions of justice, fairness, and the welfare of others.
Moral maturation refers to quantitative increases in moral content or knowledge.
Kohlberg devised a theory of moral reasoning based on six stages on clustered into three levels - elementary, intermediate, and mature.
moral intention is when an individual evaluates a situation and decides what course of action is closest to the moral ideal.
In research on children's perception of fair play, taking turns, not cheating, not bragging, and trying for first place were all included among their top descriptors of that concept.
higher levels of moral reasoning are associated with greater disapproval of unsportsmanlike aggressions, lower intentions to engaging in such actions, and a lower likelihood of antisocial behavior.
Poor sportsmanship has been consistently linked to moral reasoning, beliefs about legitimacy of actions, perceived social approval, and sportsmanlike behavior.
according to social learning theory, children learn morally appropriate or inappropriate behavior based on observation of and reinforcement from significant others.
moral reasoning refers to actions that have consequences for others' well being while moral behavior refers to the cognitive processes individuals use when thinking about moral dilemmas.
in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, children in the preconventional level are self centered (ego centrical) and make decisions based on a desire to avoid negative consequences.
kohlberg believed that ___________ were central to attaining a higher level of moral reasoning.
social environment and reasoning.
character, as described in the textbook, refers to...
virtues and qualities that individual posses such as honesty and responsibility.
social and contextual factors most likely to nurture moral growth in physical activity programs include...
providing opportunities for personal autonomy.
in early research (bovyer, 1963) on sportsmanship, 9 through 11 year-olds defined sportsmanship as...
respecting other's decisions.
moral growth is...
a quantitative increase in moral content or knowledge.
resarch on sport norms has determined that, as we age and increase our experience and level of competition,
less emphasis is placed on fair play.
the most frequent approaches for understanding how and why moral development can be modified through physical activity include all of the following EXCEPT...
positive developmental learning structures
according to damon, as described in your textbook, for youth to fully develop morally, it is essential...
to develop a moral identity to define themselves in terms of moral qualities.
moral character is the last component in...
Rest's Model of Moral Thought and Action.
according to our book, higher levels of moral reasoning in youth sports are associated with greater disapproval of...
A gene-based disorder caused by a disturbance in amino acid metabolism.
with rh incompatibility, the newborn must possess this Rh factor.
members of the feline (cat) family are the primary host of this parasite.
a prenatal screening that i s generally conducted between 15th and 20th week of gestation.
suggested ideal weight gain during pregnancy for women who are of normal weight and BMI prior to pregnancy.
an antibiotic that is known to affect the development of tooth enamel.
low birth weight
newborn weighting less than 2500 grams.
the prenatal developmental period encompassing weeks 3 to 8.
the second- as well as the first-generation effects of poor nutrition.
the most frequently occurring cytogenetic defect.
it is during the "embryonic" period that the embryo s most susceptible to the influences of a teratogen.
as little as one alcoholic drink per day during pregnancy can cause physical growth retardation.
according to the centers for disease control and prevention, in 2009, 34.3 percent of pregnant women smoked during pregnancy.
congenital rubella syndrome is most often associated with blindness.
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs when an Rh-positive man and an Rh-negative woman conceive an Rh-negative child.
Macrosomia is a frequent outcome of diabetes mellitus.
If both parents carry the sickle-cell trait, their probability of producing a normal child is approximately 50%.
alpha-fetaoprotein testing is most beneficial when conducted between the 15th to 20th weeks of pregnancy.
small for gestational age newborns are of low birth weight because they are born at 37 weeks of gestation.
according to the most recent guidelines, pregnant women should not exceed a heart rate of 140 bpm when exercising.
carbon monoxide increases risk of fetal hypoxia by...
interfering with hemoglobin's oxygen-carrying and oxygen-releasing capabilities.
findings from research on exercise during pregnancy reveal that...
active women deliver smaller babies than do sedentary women.
the tranquilizing drug that caused more than 5,000 malformed births in West Germany and dispelled the myth that the maternal environment was a protective shelter for the developing fetus was...
phenylketonuria (PKU) is a gene-based disorder caused by...
a disturbance in amino acid metabolism.
the normal growth and development process...
anti-D IgG immunoglobulin has been successful in protection against...
the most frequent outcome of fetal hyperinsulinemia induced by maternal hyperglycemia is...
amniocentesis is administered...
only when the mother is at a high risk for giving birth to a child with abnormalities.
all of the following are true statements about cystic fibrosis (CF) EXCEPT...
approval of the newest drug for CF occurred in the 1960s.
the amount of weight a woman should gain over the course of pregnancy...
influenced by the woman's body mass index.
of the following, which is NOT part of the prenatal screening package referred to as the "triple marker"?
the most striking behavioral outcome of down syndrome is...
teratogen can be defined as...
an environmental agent that causes harm to the embryo or fetus.
walking delayed two or more years, short stature, slow speech development, and prominent anatomical features such as close-set eyes; short, thick neck; and small, rather square head are symptoms and signs of...
Trisomy 21 AND down syndrome
early exposure to a teratogen is likely to lead to...
structural damage AND functional damage.
a parasite that can be transmitted in the water of swimming pools.
a style of teaching the violin that advocates appropriate parent and child attitudes.
a program of early educational experiences for financially disadvantaged children.
a popular device that allows children to be mobile at a very early age; controversial due to concerns about injuries.
level of fixity
how well established a skill is when it is discontinued.
a negative influence on human growth caused by serious or adverse stimulation.
a time of particular sensitivity to environmental stimuli.
the establishment of the minimum characteristics necessary for acquisition of a particular human behavior.
the human ability to stabilize and return to a predetermined behavior or growth pattern after being pushed off trajectory.
Johnny and Jimmy
the subject of a classic investigation concerning motor development and the effect of early stimulation and deprivation.
programs that do not emphasize the specific practice of future motor skills through developmental exercise.
the american academy of pediatrics states that infant swim programs do not dcrease the risk of drowning among participants.
the YMCA encourages total submersion of infants in aquatics programs to develop comfort in the water at an early age.
Hyponatremia is a parasite transmitted in pool water that develops in cysts in the intestinal tract.
a unique aspect of the Suzuki form of learning to play the violin is that the parent is also encouraged to take lessons so they can assist the child when necessary.
infant walkers are a practical and safe way to initiate early walking behaviors in very young children.
in her research involving Jimmy and Johnny, McGraw sought to determine if a child's normal progress in motor development could be altered by certain conditions.
Infants under extended hospital care in unstimulating environments often fail to gain weight, a condition known as deprivation dwarfism.
Readiness is a time of particular or maximum sensitivity to environmental stimuli.
research with wild chaffinches has shown that the more limited a baby bird's exposure to normal birdsong, the more likely the bird will be to modify their own vocalizations to a more rudimentary form.
catch-up can occur physically, intellectually, socially, and motorically.
motor development programs to enhance early development are categorized as "no programming" and "programming." in the "no programming" motor program, it is suggested that...
infants should be left on their backs until they are capable of changing position.
some researchers believe that overemphasis on achievement in a baby's early life may hamper...
all selections are correct.
according to dennis (1940), hopi infants who were placed on cradleboards until their first birthday...
developed sills such as sitting, creeping, and walking in the usual sequence at the same times as non-cradleboarded, white American children.
research on infant walkers has shown that...
most injuries sustained in walkers are head injuries.
throughout the last decade, one of the most common forms of early motor stimulation has been...
swim programs for infants and preschoolers.
"catch-up" is a developmental concept referring to...
the human power to stabilize and return to a predetermined behavior after being pushed off trajectory.
according to the American Academy of Pediatrics,...
structured programs should not be promoted as being therapeutically beneficial.
Head Start programs...
assume that preschool programs might boost intellectual, social, and emotional behaviors of children.
according to the american academy of pediatrics, infant walkers should...
be banned in the United States.
infants under extended hospital care in nonstimulating environments often fail to gain weight and tend to develop respiratory conditions and fever. this condition is known as...
the gymboree philosophy contends that...
the most critical part of education is during the preschool years AND certain types of play activities are essential to a child's development but are not readily available at home.
In the classic study by McGraw (1935) on the twins Johnny and Jimmy, it was found that Johnny skated at less than 1 year of age but Jimmy, who was not introduced to skating until almost a year later, never succeeded in this task. McGraw posited that Johnny's ability in skating was a function of...
lower center of gravity.
in "programming" motor development programs, it is suggested that...
parents take an active role in moving the baby or the baby's limbs during an activity.
brake systems now available on select models of infant walkers have been reported to fail what percentage of the time?
according to the Kingsley Davis (1946) study, following a period of severe deprivation, Anna...
improved her performance in motor skills but lagged in her intellectual capacities.
peak height velocity
adolescent awkwardness is frequently accompanied by a temporary disruption in motor performance during this period of growth.
mature body weight is approximately how many times greater than birth weight?
median length of boys (in inches) at one year of age.
at birth, the head is approximately what percent of total body length?
a type of bone removing cell.
the midgrowth spurt most frequently occurs in this gender.
the type of growth curve that plots increments of change per unit of time.
sheldon's physique rating referring to a round and soft individual.
anthropometric reference point referring to the top of the head.
used to measure genitalia maturity.
the midgrowth spurt in height occurs more frequently in girls than in boys.
As much as 30% of adult stature is attained during the 2-1/2 to 3 years comprising the adolescent growth spurt.
during the adolescent growth spurt in body weight, girls will gain an average of about 45 pounds.
the younger a child is when he or she encounters the "adiposity rebound," the greater the likelihood the child will have an increased BMI as an adult.
peak height velocity generally occurs at about 14 years of age in boys and 12 years of age in girls.
at birth, the head is approximately 25% of total body length.
head circumference increase only about 5 to 6 centimeters between 3 and 20 years of age.
the endomorphic physique is best described as a tall and thin individual.
osteoclasts are cell responsible for removing or breaking down bone during bone remodeling.
today's the most appropriate method for determining skeletal age in american children is through the use of the "Atlas of Skeletal Maturation."
to determine dental maturity, researchers examine...
number of teeth AND age of emergence of the teeth AND amount of calcification in the jaw bone.
median birth length is...
approximately the same for boys and girls...
research has consistently indicated that heavy babies often exhibit...
delays in motor development but soon catch up...
from zygote to birth, total length increases as much as...
adolescent awkwardness is...
a period during the growth spurt that is accompanied by a temporary disruption in motor performance.
at birth, the percentage of total body length accounted for by head and legs respectively is...
25 and 15.
generally, compared with a 25- to 34-year-old, body weight for those over 65 years of age is...
gender-dependent, with different trends for males and females.
factors affecting birth weight include...
mother's socioeconomic status AND mother's size AND birth order.
adolescent awkwardness is...
more common among higher skilled males.
after age 30, stature generally remains stable for...
the area of the body most frequently x-rayed to monitor bone growth and maturation is...
left hand and wrist.
at middle age, there is an apparent decrease in height caused by...
all selections are correct.
according to the Fels longitudinal growth study, what is the average age (rounded to nearest whole year) at which American boys and girls reach peak height velocity?
14, boys; 12, girls.
the result of the condition referred to as "female athlete triad" is...
age of menarche generally...
is closely related to skeletal maturity.
during the second year of life, gains in body length average about...
a velocity curve for height is useful in depicting...
all selections are correct.
during the 2.5- to 3- year period of the adolescent growth spurt, adolescents often gain...
20% of the adult height.
median birth weights for girls and boys are generally...
7 and 7.5 pounds respectively.
the fastest rate of human growth occurs during the...
according to NHANES data (2003-2006), this percentage of children 6 to 11 years of age have a BMI greater than the 95th percentile based on the CDC growth charts.
this body mass index score is the cutoff point for the classification of obesity.
the percentage reduction that occurs in resting cardiac output between 25 and 60 years of age.
maximal stroke volume is achieved at this percent of maximal aerobic power.
according to the american college sports medicine, the minimal HR intensity for acquiring cardio respiratory benefits is what percent of maximum heart rate.
approximately what percent of mexican american women are overweight or obese?
weight training guidelines for young children emphasis this type of muscle action.
initial gains in strength following resistance training are primarily the result of this mechanism
amount of blood ejected with each beat of the left ventricle.
a sport involving lifting weights.
maximal stroke volume is achieved during submaxial work at an average aerobic power of 50%.
aerobic activity has been shown to significantly increase maximal oxygen consumption in young children.
the age-related decline in maximal oxygen consumption is about 2% per year after 40 years of age.
according to the national children and youth fitness studies, few differences exist between boys and girls 6 to 9 years of age on measures of upper body strength as measured by the modified pull-up test.
both boys and girls should not be allowed to perform maximum lifts until reaching a Tanner stage 4 level of development.
in the early phases of strength training, increases in muscular strength are mainly due to muscle hypertrophy.
Peak flexibility is generally achieved between 9 and 12 years of age.
one is considered "overweight" when body mass index exceeds 30 kg/m2
approximately 50% to 80% of a child's physical fitness training should be strength training.
skinfold thicknesses generally increase between 45 and 65 years of age.
the sport that involves maximum lefts--including the snatch, clean-and-jerk, squat, bench press, and dead lifts--is referred to as...
a potential cause of muscle deterioration in the elderly population is a(n)...
decrease in size and number of muscle fibers.
research on flexibility indicates that...
peak flexibility is achieved in the late teens or early 20s.
muscular force exerted against a movable object with a change in the length of the exercised muscle is...
by 80 years of age, about what percentage of muscle mass is lost?
according to the surgeon general's report, what percentage of the american adult population is not active at all?
most authorities believe that individuals in their 70s and 80s who succeed in exercise performance such as the 10K road can attribute their success to...
maximum stroke volume is generally achieved at what percentage of maximum aerobic power?
which of the following is considered a gender-neutral means for classifying one as obese?
overall, women's total maximal absolute body strength is about what percent of men's overall maximal absolute body strength?
according to the united states weight and power lifting federations, maximum lifting...
is dependent on biological maturity.
which term best describes the relationship (correlation) between physical fitness in adolescence and the level of physical activity in adulthood?
maximal heart rate can be estimated by...
the amount of blood pumped from the heart with each beat is...
defined as stroke volume AND limited by heart size.
bradycardia refers to
slow heart rate.
in general, upper body strength in women is less than that of men by what percent?
according to isaacs and pohlman (2000), for every kilogram increase in body fat there is a decrease in vertial jump performance of school age children (7-11 years) of...
the average weight gain in the american population between 1976 and 1991 was found to be approximately what, even though during this same period height increase by only 1 centimeter.
a condition associated with damage to sensory receptors.
a clouding of the eye's lens
a type of eye dominance most often associated with superior athletic performance.
research suggest that it is best if a baseball player possesses this type of eye dominance.
most prevalent form of age-related macular degeneration.
an inability to clearly focus on near objects.
golgi tendon organ
a stretch receptor located at the musculo-tendinous junction.
legal definition of blindness
these types of cells are primarily concentrated in the macula.
makes colorless night vision possible.
normal static visual acuity is generally attained by 6 years of age.
the Ansler grid is used to assess age-related macular degeneration.
the amount of light reaching the retina at age 60 is only about half the amount that reaches the retina at age 20.
senile miosis is a clinical condition caused by a drooping eyelid.
unilateral eye dominance is associated with better hitting performance in baseball.
children are best at visually tracking objects that move in an arc.
the otolith organ is primarily responsible for detecting linear acceleration.
babies are capable of hearing even before birth.
romberg sign disease is frequently associated with blinds.
legally, blindness refers to a Snellen distance vision of 20/300.
the result of the ocular muscles that control eye movements not being fully developed at birth is...
all selections are correct.
as we age, the drooping of the eyelid...
is known as senile ptosis AND can limit vertical peripheral vision.
clouding of the crystalline lens of the eye is known as...
the parts of the eye that makes color vision and acuity possible are the...
people with romberg's sign disease have a malfunction of the...
sensory receptors in the soles of their feet.
the process of maintaining clear retinal images in varying light conditions is...
factors that influence how well a person can make a motor response coincide with the arrival of an external object include all of the following EXCEPT...
the primary role of the golgi tendon organs is to...
detect tension in the muscle's tendon.
humans rely on which sense more than the others?
fatty deposits found in the retina.
one of the most common causes of loss of visual acuity among older adults is...
senile macular degeneration
the last structures of the eye to develop are...
the muscles that control eye movements and dilator muscles of the pupil.
below the level of the higher brain centers.
reflexes predominantly used for protection, survival, and nutrition.
reflexes related to the development of later voluntary movement.
palmar grasp reflex
a response to tactile stimulation of the palm of the hand.
the creation of a negative intraoral pressure and a positive pressure from a pressing of the tongue.
asymmetric tonic neck reflex
the bow and arrow, or fender's position.
occurs upon stroking the bottom or lateral portion of the foot.
palmar mental reflex
elicits a facial response when the base of the palm of either hand is scratched.
elicited by turning the baby's head in either direction when the baby is supine; the head responds by righting itself with the body.
characterized by the head tilting in the direction opposite of a tilting of the body.
upon a stimulus, the supporting arm(s) flex or extend in a apparent effort to maintain an upright position.
relatively intrinsic, rhythmical, patterned, movement that decreases anxiety and tension and provides stimulation for further development.
human reflexes are typically initiated in the higher brain centers.
though infant reflexes are more common during the first year of life, they normally persist throughout childhood in some form.
primitive reflexes are those reflexes that are thought to relate to later voluntary movement.
infant reflexes can be useful as diagnostic tools to help determine the infant's neurological maturation.
the palmar grasp reflex is usually one of the last infant reflexes to emerge.
the sucking reflex sometimes exists prenatally (i.e., in utero).
the symmetric tonic neck reflex is often referred to as the bow and arrow or fencer's position.
the babinski reflex is often evident at birth.
the palmar mandibular reflex is elicited by applying pressure simultaneously to the palm of both hands.
stereotypies are rhythmical, patterned, seemingly centrally controlled movements found in normal, healthy infants.
the reflex that occurs when the infant is tipped off balance in any direction and that appears to relate to the attainment of upright posture is the...
involuntary swimming-like movements can be elicited around...
a few days after birth.
the reflex related to upright posture is the...
when the bottom of the foot is stroked from the heel to the roses causing the roses to fan out and extend, the reflex being observed is the...
a rhythmic patterned, and seemingly centrally controlled group of movements characteristic of infancy is known as
the number of different stereotypes...
increases throughout the first year of life.
the plantar grasp reflex is elicited by...
applying slight pressure to the ball of the foot, causing all the toes to flex
when the base of either palm is scratched, causing the lower jaw to open and close, the reflex being observed is the...
palmar mental reflex.
the reflex elicited by turning the baby's body in either direction when she is supine is the...
one of the most well known infant reflexes, which may also be one of the first emerge, is a response to tactile stimulation of the palm and is referred to as...
palmar grasp reflex
"...the ultimate expression in the straited muscle of integrated effects of a host of cortical and subcortical facilitory and inhibitory influences."
the voluntary use of the hands
according to expert, not public opinion, it is the most mature form of prone locomotion often beginning around 7 to 9 months of age.
according to experts, not opinion, this form of motion precedes creeping.
a crawling pattern where the right leg moves forward as the right arm moves back.
phase I reaching and grasping
visually initiated, but not visually controlled, and characterized by the reach and frasp occurring simultaneously.
a crawling pattern in which the limbs on the same side of the body move back and forth simultaneously, in unison.
includes creeping and crawling and all of their variations.
phase II reaching and grasping
visually initiated and controlled, and often characterized by the use of two hands, not one.
movement involving both hands, the complementary use of the hands.
voluntary movement becomes the dominant form of movement midway through the first year of postnatal life.
when born, the baby typically has virtually no voluntary control over the head or neck.
Research by Rochat indicates that self-sitting is an important component for the use of the hands in reaching activities.
in research on the development of crawling, fairly strict stages were found to exist for most babies.
larger, chubbier babies generally crawl earlier than smaller, slimmer, more naturally proportioned babies
a homolateral crawling pattern is characterized by the limbs on the same side simultaneously moving forward and backward (e.g., as the right leg goes forward, so does the right arm).
considerable evidence indicates that babies who walk earlier possess accelerated or more refined movement skill later in life.
vision plays an important role in the phase I grasp, according to bower.
according to bower, phase I reaching and grasping is generally characterized by two-handed reaching.
According to bower, phase II reaching and grasping is generally characterized by differentiated reaching and grasping.
locomotion refers to
creeping and crawling
it is believed that children who walk somewhat earlier...
possess smaller bones or linear frames.
voluntary movements of infants are also referred to as...
voluntary movement begins to appear in most infants around the...
fourth week of life.
for phase II infants, the dominant force in making decisions concerning grasp is...
research has determined that infants who are early walkers...
do not necessarily have accelerated or refined skill performance later in life.
as the subcortically produced reflexes gradually disappear...
the diameter of the dendrites slowly increase, accelerating the velocity of the stimulation.
Rochat's (1992) study of the effect of the ability to "self-sit" on the development of early eye-hand coordination found that...
all infants have the least success while the supine position.
a significant difference between phase I and phase II reaching grasping is...
once the reach has been completed, the child attempts the grasp in phase II.
at approximately 12 months of age an infant can usually...
roll from supine to prone, sit alone, and sit when holding an external object.
those movements predominantly produced by the small muscles or muscle groups of the body.
use of the hands.
coordinated movements of the individual digits used to manage an object already in the hand.
movements generated to displace both the hand and the in-hand object through movements of the upper limb.
all hand movements in which the action of all the digits, including the thumb, is similar.
combinations of movements involving the thumb and other involved digits reciprocally and simultaneously interacting to produce relatively dissimilar movements.
the act of grasping.
the ability to glean information from objects by manipulation.
later, alternate, and rubbing motions across an object's surface to detect texture.
the third and final stage of holding a writing or drawing implement.
all four fingers and the thumb wrapped around a writing implement to form a fist.
begins with the construction of basic geometric figures like spirals and simple crosses, and evolves into the construction of squares, rectangles.
fine motor generally refers to those movements generally produced by the smaller muscles or muscle groups of the body.
intrinsic movements are hand movements that displace both hand and the in-hand object through movements of the upper limb.
prehension applies specifically to the act of grasping, including the approach, the grasp, and the release of objects.
according to halverson in a balssic study on reaching, the most immature form of reaching involved the hand approaching the target object circuitously from a variety of angles.
according to newell and associates, only a fraction of the more than 1000 possible grip combinations are used by most people.
haptic perception appears to emerge in a fairly predictable sequence for most people.
the mature grasp of a pencil or writing implement is characterized by the thumb, middle finger, and index finger functioning as a tripod for the implement.
in research comparing japanese to british children in their development of pencil manipulation, japanese children were found to achieve a more mature technique at a significantly earlier age.
according to kellogg, the aggregate stage of children's drawing is characterized by construction of basic geometric shapes such as spirals and circles evolving into squares, rectangles, and triangles in combination to form shapes like houses or other familiar objects.
according to research, haptic perception begins to emerge as early as the...
first few months of life.
the position involving all four fingers and the thumb wrapped around a pencil to form a fist is...
a movement such as squeezing a rubber ball and the grip most people use when holding a writing implement is called
a property that can be haptically perceived is...
texture, hardness, AND shape.
according to the research of bushnell and boudreau, the order of appearance of haptic perceptions is...
hardness, weight, shape
in kellogg's study of children's drawings, the stage of development when the child not only combines diagrams and figures but combines three or more is referred to as the...
in kellogg's study of children's drawings, the stage of development that is characterized by drawings with increased precision and complexity is called the...
in the study by newell and associates (1989) of the effects of using various size of objects with preschool-age and adult subjects, it was found that...
adults used one hand 60 percent of the time, while children used one hand 38 percent of the time, with object-to-hand-size ratio being a significant factor.
according to research by bushnell and boudreau (1993), infant object manipulation evolves through three phases with the first being...
holding the object with one hand and occasionally bringing it to the mouth.
according to the research of Ziviani (1983), the dynamic tripod is usually present in children by age...
in his research on children's reaching and grasping, halverson (1931) found that there appeared to be three basic methods of reaching, which the most immature being...
sweeping the hand and arm in a backward manner toward the object.
the following statements are true regarding drawing and writing as movement products EXCEPT...
there is a sequential development of movement technique.
according to research on finger tapping, our peak in fine motor coordination and speed of movement usually occurs at....
the major difference found in the cross-cultural studies between japanese and british children is that the...
japanese children attain dynamic tripod at an earlier age.
in his research on children's reaching and grasping, halverson found that...
all selections are correct.
in the developmental sequence for the standing long jump (component approach), this step of the arm action is described as follows: "winging arms. the arms extend backward in a winging posture at takeoff."
approximate age (in years) at which both boys and girls first begin to perform a skip.
according to research, backpacks should not exceed this percent of body weight.
average age (in months) at which independent walking occurs.
on average, peak running speed occurs in girls at about this age (years).
best angle of take-off when performing the standing long jump.
during mature running, the performer should flex the elbow to approximately what degree?
a gallop performed in a sideward direction.
a form of jumping in which the landing is accomplished on the leg opposite the propelling leg.
a motor skill best described as consisting of an uneven rhythmical pattern.
the mean age of independent walking is 9 months.
authorities suggest that backpacks should not exceed 10% of body weight.
in mature running, the hell of the recovery leg should never make contact with the buttock
on average, girls' running speed peaks at about 14 to 15 years of age.
the most effective angle of takeoff in horizontal jumping is 35 degrees.
within the arm action component for the takeoff phase of the standing long jump (component approach), a child exhibiting "arm winging" would be at a development level of step 2.
according to research by isaacs and colleagues (2002) on vertical jump performance, children who performed a countermovement jumped higher than children who did not.
the "slide" resembles the "skip" but differs in that the slide is performed in a sideward manner.
galloping with the nonpreferred leg as the lead leg is not usually accomplished until approximately 7 years of age.
skipping is performed with an uneven rhythmical patter.
the elementary stage of catching is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT...
ball caught with hands, without making contact with body.
each running cycle consists of how many phases?
the developmental sequence for the arm action component of the flight and landing phase of the standing long jump is...
arms winging; arms abducted, lateral rotation; arms abducted, medial rotation; arm overhead.
which of the following is NOT a distinctive feature of early attempts at walking?
according to data about the vertical jump collected by isaacs (2000), children of all ages jump higher when which type of vertical jump is employed?
one of the motor pattern in which girls generally outperform boys is...
the most difficult motor pattern for children to attain is...
infant readiness to begin running is characterized by...
enough lower-limb strength.
"an exaggerated form of" and "a natural extension of the basic skill of walking" are definitions for...
according to research on gender differences in motor skill performance, the one skill in which girls outperform boys is...
regarding the developmental sequence for overarm throwing (component approach, this step of the forearm action component is being describe below: "forearm lag. the forearm and ball appear to lag. the lagging forearm reaches its farthest point back, deepest point down, or last stationary point before the shoulder reach front facing."
according to hellweg and isaacs, how many points would be awared to a child who exhibited the following characteristics during a catching attempt: "hand contact, miss: initial contact is made by the hands but the ball is then dropped immediately or dropped following arm or body contact."
according to seefelt, fear reactions to a thrown ball are first exhibited at about this age (in years).
according to robertson and colleagues, boys' throwing velocity will on average increase about how many feet per second per year between kindergarten through second grade?
according to wild, during overarm throwing, a forward step is first taken onto the contralateral leg at approximate what age (in years)?
mature ball dribbling is best described as this type of skill.
this form of knowledge has been associated with better overarm throwing performance.
a movement performed on the support leg following ball-foot contact during maturing punting.
characteristics associated with "striking" are also closely associated with this motor skill.
a fundamental object control skill that involves kicking a stationary ball.
according to wild, a forward step with the contralateral leg during overarm throwing is generally not exhibited until 6.5 years or older.
recent research on overarm throwing has found that 13-year-odl girls are capable of throwing with significantly greater velocity than girls of the same age who were studied 20 years earlier.
regarding the "action fo the feed" for overarm throwing (component approach), a child exhibiting a homolateral step would be classified as being at a step 3 developmental level.
in seefeldt's study of fear reactions to a projectile, he found children between 1-1/2 and 3 years of age were most likely to exhibit a fear reaction.
mature catchers must watch the ball all the way into the hands in order to accomplish a successful catch.
a large diameter ball tend to elicit a more mature catching patter than a small diameter ball.
mature baseball hitting ahs many elements in common with mature overarm throwing.
mature ball bouncing (dribbling) is best classified as a pushing skill.
a hope on the super leg is the last identifiable movement exhibited by mature punters.
during ball bouncing (dribbling, the hand should recontact the ball when it has rebounded half way up.
of the fundamental movement, the most complex is the...
according to thomas and french (1985), the motor skill is which children's gender differences is greatest is the...
according to roberton's (1978) developmental sequence for the throw, the appropriate sequence for the forearm action component is...
no forearm lag, forearm lag, delayed forearm lag.
the developmental sequence for the hand component of catching is...
palms of hands face upward; palms of hands face each other; palms of hand are adjusted to flight and size of oncoming object.
the child's initial attempt at striking an object with either a bare hand or an implement is very similar to the...
overarm throwing pattern of young children.
the mature catcher...
gives with the catch AND adjusts the entire body to control the projectile with only the hands.
object-control skills include all of the following EXCEPT...
research indicates that advanced throwers tend to stop forward a distance equal to at least what percentage of their standing height?
the individual generally credited with setting the standards in 1938 for the study of developmental throwing stages is...
according to research by nelson and colleagues (1991), the environmental factor most associated with throwing performance is...
presence of an adult male in the home.
for every 10 male coaches, there are approximately how many female coaches?
according to goldberg, this is the approximate overall injury rate (percentage) among youth football participants.
authorities recommend that young children not take part in competitive sports until this age (in years).
commotio cordis is most common in boys younger than this age (in years).
fastest growing recreational sport in the united states.
most popular sport for boys.
category of youth activity with the largest enrollment.
number one reason on children say that they participate in sports.
most popular sport for girls
outdoor track and field.
least important reason why children participate in sport.
the category of activity that contains the most youth sport participants is "agency-sponsored" sports program.
according to the national federation of state high school associations, the most popular sport of young girls is soccer.
children rank ''winning the game" as one of the top five reasons they participant in youth sports.
according to the athletic footwear association study, the top reason children stop playing is sport is, "the coach played favorites."
according to goldberg, the overall injury rate in youth football is 5%.
according to nobler, most soccer injuries are caused by person to person contact.
of the 3.5 million coaches in the united states, about 1.5 million are volunteers.
approximately 1 in 10 youth sport coaches is female.
competitive stress always leads to poor sporting performance.
authorities recommend that children not begin competing in sports prior to age 8.
according to harter (1978, 1982, 1988), individuals choose to participate in an activity such as sports because they...
experience success at performance attempts, which motivates them to continue performance.
the most cited reason children provide for discontinuing a sport is...
they lose interest.
the most popular interscholastic sport for boys in the united states is...
according to silverstein (1979), which of the following contributes to football injuries?
age AND weight of participant.
the coaching behavioral assessment system (CBAS) developed in 1977 by smith, smoll, hunt is a system for...
evaluating the behaviors of coaches during games.
approximately what percentage of volunteer coaches lack the necessary formal preparation to coach?
ways to reduce competitive stress in sport including all of the following EXCEPT...
providing more trophies and distributing them earlier in the season.
the most popular interscholastic sport for girls in the untied states is...
track and field.
reducing body weight through rapid dehydration...
can be detrimental to performance.
young children between 8 and 9 years of age tend to use which of the following sources of information to estimate their physical competence?
game outcome AND parental feedback.
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