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62 terms

Chapter 16 - Endocrine System

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pituitary gland or hypophysis cerebri
approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain
anterior lobe or adenohypophysis
produces and secretes the following hormones: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadotropic hormone
growth hormone (GH)
regulates the growth of the body
adrenocoticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the adrenal cortex
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates the thyroid gland
gonadotropic hormones
affect the male and female reproductive systems
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)
regulate development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes
prolactin or lactogenic hormone (PRL)
promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant
posterior lobe or neurohypophysis
stores and releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water
oxytocin
stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum
hypothalamus
located near the pituitary gland in the brain
thyroid gland
largest endocrine gland.
parathyroid glands
four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), the hormone produced by the glands, helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood
islets of Langerhans
clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, made up of different cell types that secrete various hormones, including insulin and glucagon. Nonendocrine cells found throughout the pancreas produce enzymes that facilitate digestion
adrenal glands or suprarenals
paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney. The outer portion is called the adrenal cortex, and the inner portion is called the adrenal medulla
cortisol
secreted by the adrenal cortex. It aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy (also called hydrocortisone)
epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noadrenaline)
secreted by the adrenal medulla. These hormones help the body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat, and respirations
aden/o
gland
adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal glands
cortic/o
cortex (the outer layer of a body organ)
andocrin/o
endocrine
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
pituitar/o
pituitary glands
thyroid/o, thyr/o
thyroid gland
acr/o
extremities, height
calc/i
calcium
dips/o
thirst
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
-drome
run, running
acromegaly
enlargement of the extremities (and bones of the face, hands, and feet caused by excessive production of the growth hormone by pituitary gland after puberty)
adenitis
inflammation of the gland
adenomegaly
enlargement of the gland
adenosis
abnormal condition of a gland
adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands
adrenomegaly
enlargement (of one or both) of the adrenal glands
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in the blood
hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in the blood
hyperpituitarism
state of excessive pituitary gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of pituitary hormones)
hyperthyroidism
state of excessive thyroid gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones)
hypocalcemia
deficient calcium in the blood
hypoglycemia
deficient sugar in the blood
hypokalemia
deficient potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
deficient sodium in the blood
hypopituitarism
state of deficient pituitary gland activity
hypothyroidism
state of deficient thyroid gland activity (characterized by decreased secretion of thyroid hormones)
panhypopituitarism
state of total deficient pituitary gland activity
parathyroidoma
tumor of parathyroid gland
thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid gland
acidosis
condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Addison disease
chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression and other emotional problems
cretinism
condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy (wasting away) of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. The disease is characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism
Cushing syndrome
group of symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be the result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. Symptoms include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face," pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" and wasting away
diabetes insipidus (DI)
result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst and large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body
diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by underactivity of the islets of Langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.
gigantism
condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland
Graves disease
a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos
ketosis
condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism
myxedema
condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thyroxine; a severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. Symptoms include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech and anemia