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pituitary gland or hypophysis cerebri
approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain
anterior lobe or adenohypophysis
produces and secretes the following hormones: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadotropic hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)
regulate development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes
prolactin or lactogenic hormone (PRL)
promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant
four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), the hormone produced by the glands, helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood
islets of Langerhans
clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, made up of different cell types that secrete various hormones, including insulin and glucagon. Nonendocrine cells found throughout the pancreas produce enzymes that facilitate digestion
adrenal glands or suprarenals
paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney. The outer portion is called the adrenal cortex, and the inner portion is called the adrenal medulla
secreted by the adrenal cortex. It aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy (also called hydrocortisone)
epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noadrenaline)
secreted by the adrenal medulla. These hormones help the body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat, and respirations
enlargement of the extremities (and bones of the face, hands, and feet caused by excessive production of the growth hormone by pituitary gland after puberty)
state of excessive pituitary gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of pituitary hormones)
state of excessive thyroid gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones)
state of deficient thyroid gland activity (characterized by decreased secretion of thyroid hormones)
condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression and other emotional problems
condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy (wasting away) of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. The disease is characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism
group of symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be the result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. Symptoms include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face," pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" and wasting away
diabetes insipidus (DI)
result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst and large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body
diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by underactivity of the islets of Langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.
condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty
a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos
condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism
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