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50 terms

Western Civilizations Chapter 19 and 20

STUDY
PLAY
cottage industry
production method where tasks were done by individuals in their rural homes
entrepreneur
were interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
capital
money available for investment
secularism
indifference to or rejection of religion
industrial capitalism
economic system based on industrial production
realpolitik
politics based on practical matters
conservatism
based on tradition and social stability
liberalism
political philosophy based on the Enlightenment ideas; people should be as free as possible from government constraint
realism
rejected romanticism to portray life as it was
romanticism
emphasizes feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
socialism
system in which society owns and controls some means of production
nationalism
awareness of being a part of a community with common language, religion, and national symbols
kaiser
emperor
militarism
reliance on military strength
organic evolution
plants and animals have evolved over time
Three factors contributed to Great Britain's industrial success
1. labor pool of displaced farmers
2. capital
3. natural resources and a river network that provided transport
Where were most early factories located? Why?
near waterways because they provided the source of power
What did James Watt invent?
an improved steam engine
Who contributed to advances in engine development?
Gottlieb Daimler and Rudolf Diesel
What was the main cause of the Crimean War?
Russia wanted to control the Balkans to have access to the Mediterranean Sea
What is another name for a popular vote?
Plebiscite
What is the movement to end slaver called?
abolitionism
What is the act of setting a group of people free called?
emancipation
At the start of the U.S. Civil War the first state to secede was South Carolina, what does secede mean?
withdraw
Originally liberalism did not believe that all men should have the right to vote, only upper and middle-class men who owned property, why?
They feared mob rule (by the uneducated masses)
The right of the Great Powers (Britain, Russian, Prussia, Austria, and later France) to send armies to other countries to restore order is called:
principle of intervention
Why did the reforms of Czar Alexander II not satisfy many Russians?
1. landowners kept best land for themselves
2.they followed the old ways of farming
3.conservatives thought he was destroying society
What was the role of the steam engine in the industrial revolution?
it allowed factories to be located in urban areas away from water
What are the features of the romantic style?
feelings, emotions, and imagination
How did discoveries in science in the 1800s benefit Europeans?
They improved medicine, industry, and transportation
bourgeoisie
middle and upper class- oppressors
proletariat
working class- the oppressed
dictatorship
governent in which a person or group has absolute power
revisionist
Marxists that rejected the revolutionary approach and argued that workers must continue to organize in mass political parties and even work with other parties to gain reforms
feminism
movement for women's rights
literacy
ability to read
ministerial responsiblity
idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected legislative body and not to the executive officer
Duma
Russian legislative assembly
psychoanalysis
a therapist and patient probe deeply into the patient's memory
pogroms
organized massacres
Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
What purposes were served by compulsory education? (List three)
-trained youth to work- white collar jobs
-helped increased literacy rates
- taught political ideas and promoted nationalism
Why did American workers organize labor unions?
Because they worked in unsafe factories for little pay
Who was the emperor of Germany at the end of the nineteenth century?
William II (Wilhelm II)
What basic right were women denied until World War I? (After WWI in the U.S.A.)
the right to vote
What was the movement in which writers and artists rebelled against traditional styles (1870-1914) was called?
modernism
How did Florence Nightingale and Clara Barton transform nursing?
they transformed nursing into a profession
Who was the inventor of the light bulb among his many other inventions?
Thomas Edison
Who sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic / invented the wireless telegraph?
Marconi
10. What was the cause of the grievances that workers were trying to give to the Czar in the "Bloody Sunday" incident? (List three)
pitiful working conditions
-poor living conditions
-government repression