When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out. This is a normal reflex up to about 2 years of age.
Tonic Neck Reflex
When the child's head is turned to the side, the limbs on that side will straighten and the opposite limbs will bend
sudden infant death syndrome, babies should sleep on their backs, remove stuffed animals, and pillows from cribs
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
genetic disorders caused by the absence or deficiency of a substance, usually an enzyme, essential to cellular metabolism that results in abnormal protein, carbohydrate, or fat metabolism
Hearing Loss in Newborns
newborns should have a hearing screen before discharge,
all infants and toddlers should ride in a rear facing car seat until they are two. Nurses are responsible for providing car seat education before discharge.
Cribs and Sleep
crib mattresses should fit snugly, you should not use drop side cribs
the period from one month to one year of age
doubles within 5 months triples within 12 months
cannot be used until 12 months, it can cause intestinal bleeding, anemia, and increased incidence of allergies.
Height increase during infancy
2.5 cm(1 inch) during each of the first 6 months and about 1.2 cm(1/2 inch) each months until 12 months
a normal reflex of young infants, startle reflex
at birth infants can only momentarily hold their heads up, but by four months they have no problems
by one year infants recognize their own names, can say three to five words, and understand almost 100 words
Two-Three Month Old Infants
begin to smile responsively instead of reflexively
Injury Prevention in Infants
the most common causes of injury are MVC, aspiration, suffocation, falls, or poisoning.
includes intentional physical abuse or neglect, emotional abuse or neglect, and sexual abuse.
Warning Signs of Abuse in Children
physical evidence, previous injury, conflicting stories about injuries, injury blamed on sibling, injury inconsistent with history, injury inconsistent from developmental age, initial complaint not associated with injury, inappropriate response of the child, previous reports of abuse, frequent ED visits.
recommended for infant nutrition because breast milk contains the essential nutrients of protein, fats carbohydrates, and immunoglobins that bolster the ability to resist infection.
not recommended before 6 months
Infants- Total daily sleep
ranges from the time children begin to walk independently until they walk and run with ease, 12-36 months
begin to put thoughts into words at about two years of age
Eating Habits in Toddlers
are determined in early childhood, limit milk intake to 2-3 cups per day.
refers to the years between 3 and 5, vision screening should begin at this period
School Age Children
ages 6 to 18
children should be evaluated at 12 years for a lateral curvature of the spine
Sexually Transmitted Infections
the consequences of should be taught to school age children at about 10 years of age.
is a prominent health problem, increases risk for hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, pulmonary complications, sleep apnea, musculoskeletal problems.
13 to 20 years old
the point at which reproduction becomes possible
Adolescence- physical changes
1. Increased growth rate of skeleton, muscle, and viscera 2. Sex-specific changes such as changes in shoulder and hip width 3. Alteration in distribution of muscle and fat 4. Development of the reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics