31 terms

AP Human Geography: Cultural Geography

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culture
the shared experience, traits, and activities of a group of people who have a common heritage
cultural synthesis
AKA cultural syncretism, the blending together of two or more cultural influences
Modern architecture
developed during the 20th century that expresses geometric, ordered forms such as the 1950s homes of Frank Lloyd Wright
Postmodern architecture
the design abandons use of blocky rectlinear shapes in favor of wavy, crystalline, or bending shapes, can incorporate green technology or non-traditional materials like metal sheeting
New England House
Small, one-story pitched roof "Cape Cod" style or the irregular roof "Salt Box" with one long pitched roof in front and a sort of low angle roof in back
Federalist or Georgian House
Refers to the housing styles of the late 1700s and early 1800s in Anglo America, these are often two or three story urban townhouses connected to one another. Architectural elements around windows and rooflines feature classical Greek and Roman designs and stone carvings. As stand alone buildings, these are symmetrical homes with central doorways and equal numbers of windows on each side of the house
The I-House
A loose form of Federalist and Georgian influence on the average family home in the US and Canada, simple rectangular I-houses have a central door with one window on each side of the home's front and three symmetrical windows on the second floor. However, as the I-house's style diffused westward, the rectangular shape and symmetry was lost. Later I-houses have the door moved to the side and have additions onto the back or side of the house. The I-house giveaways are the fireplaces on each side of the house and an even pitched roof. The loss of form as the I-house moved across the Appalachian Mts to the Midwest and across the Great Lakes to the Prairie Provinces is an example of relocation diffusion.
Victorian House
This style of house abandons the symmetry or simple geomtry of previous styles. They were in the later 1800s into the early 1900s, during the reign of the British Queen Victoria, these homes feature rounded or octagonal turrets (sort of like castle towers)
Mansard roof
A telltale sign of a Victorian house, where the outer edge of the roof faces outward at a very high pitch
Southern house
There are two elements of Southern American design, one is the traditional Georgian or I-house surrounded by a veranda, a shaded porch, to cool the house exterior. This was the domain of wealthier Southerners. They were often built on raised foundations to create a cool layer of air under the home
"Shotgun shack"
common to poor and working class traditional Southern homes, the main element is the long, front-to-back central hallway that provides a ventilation tunnel, necessary in the hot and humid summer months, the design gets its name from the fact that if you fired a gun through the front entrance the bullet would exit via the back door
Southwestern house
Folk housing in the SW US reflects the combined traditions of the Spanish and Native American, reflected in the use of thick stone or adobe walls to insulate the home from intense summer heat, another native element in southwestern folk homes is the timbered, flat roof supports that tend to stick out of the home's front, the Spanish influence is often seen in the use of stucco walls, terracotta roof tiles, or in the curved arches in the entrances and curved tops of doorways in the interior, the center of the Spanish-style home might also feature an open-air patio
Christian religious buildings
Traditional houses or worship tend to have a central steeple or two high bell towers in front of the building, the steeple is typical of smaller churches, and bell towers are found in larger churches and cathedrals, basilicas, like St. Peters in the Vatican or St. Paul's in London, have central domes similar to the US Capitol building. Symbolically, older churches, cathedrals, and basilicas feature a cross-shaped floor plan.
Hindu religious buildings
Temple and shrines tend to have a rectangular-shaped main body and feature one or more short towers of carved stone, the towers often feature stepped sides and display carvings of the heads and faces of deities, the most famous example of this deisgn in the temple complex of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, India
Buddhist
Temples and shrines vary depending on which Buddhist tradition is followed in the region. In Nepal and Tibet, a temple can be a stupa, with a dome or tower featuring a pair of eyes. In East Asia, the tower-style pagoda with several levels that each feature winged roofs extending forward is common. Temples and shrines in China and in Shinto Japan (a Buddhist offshoot) feature one- or two-story buildings with large, curved winged roofs. Temples are often guarded by large lion statues, such as those at the Temple of the Sun and Moon in the Forbidden City of Beijing. Temples in SE Asia tend to have several towers with thin pointed spires that point outward at an angle.
Islamic religious buildings
Mosques can take a variety of forms, though many have central domes, the giveaway feature of a mosque is one of more minarets, narrow towers that are pointed on top, famous mosques include the Al-Kaba Mosque in Mecca, the most holy place in Islam, an open air mosque with a large black cube at its center, the third most holy place in Islam is the Al-Asqa mosque in Jerusalem that sits alongside the Dome of the Rock, an eight-sided mosque with a high central dome and thin spire on top on top featuring a crescent moon, another large mosque is the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
Judaic
There is not a common architectural design style to synagogues, the most holy place in Judaism is the Western Wall of the former Temple of Solomon, next to the Dome of the Rock, known as the Wailing Wall
received pronunciation
like "posh" English, as opposed to Cockney
Pidgin
simplified forms of the language that use key vocabulary words and limited grammar, often heard in the spoken English of Hindustani Indian immigrants to Britain, Canada, and the United States, like Creole, Patois, they all integrate both colonial and indigenous language forms
Lingua Franca : )
an expression coined to describe its utility as a bridge language, has since been replaced by English
major language families
Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Afro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Dravidian, Niger-Congo, Altaic, Japanese, Korean, (in that order from largest to smallest)
Anatolian theory
migrants from the Indian subcontinent and their language were for some time concentrated in the peninsula that makes up most of present-day Turkey, known historically as Asia Minor or Anatolia. From there, a large migration crossed he Hellespont into continental Europe and spread outward into what was possibly a relatively unpopulated region.
Kurgan Theory
hold that the same group of migrants from the Indian subcontinent instead made their way into Central Asia, and then migrated across the Eurasian steppe into central and Western Europe, bringing their language with them. Without significant archaeological discovery or possibly extensive genetic research, it will be difficult to prove whether either theory hold true
folk music
any music original to a specific culture
folk songs
often incorporate cultural stories and religious tradition, which can also be describes as folklore
popular culture
generates a global flow of pop music that often has the effect of drowning out local folk music traditions from radio and other media, in the cases where you do hear electronic instrumentation in folk music, this indicates a form of acculturation in which folk traditions are accepting the influence of popular music
Appalachia music
often realized by the playing of the fiddle, a variant of the European violin, and the banjo, an instrument of African origin, bluegrass is most popular, which originated in Kentucky
continental cuisine
refers to the formal food traditions that emerged from mainland Europe in the 1800s
haute cuisine
French for "high cooking", where traditionally a main meat course is served with a flour, cream, or wine-based sauce and side dishes of vegetables and potato, filet mignon par example
Nouvelle cuisine
the contemporary form of the continental styles mainly from France, Spain, and Italy, popular in California, popularized by chef Wolfgang Puck
fusion cuisine
infuses dishes and flavors from Asia and Europe
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