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148 terms

Language of Medicine Chapter 11 Pronunciation of Terms

Language of Medicine Chapter 11 Pronunciation of Terms
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angiography
examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium
angioplasty
surgical repair of a blood vessel
anoxia
deprivation of oxygen
aorta
largest artery in the body
aortic stenosis
narrowing of the aorta
arrhythmia
irregular or abnormal rhythm, usually referring to the heart rhythm
arterial anastomosis
Surgical joining together of two arteries.
arteriography
process of recording (x-ray) arteries after injecting contrast material
arteriole
small artery
arterosclerosis
Hardening of arteries (the most common cholesterol-like deposits (plaque) in arteries)
artery
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
atherectomy
surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
atheroma
fatty tissue tumor inside a large vessel
atherosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries
atrial
pertaining to an upper chamber of the heart
atrioventricular bundle
in the heart, conducts the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node into the ventricles
atrioventricular node
neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
atrium; atria
one of the two upper chambers of the heart
brachial artery
pertaining to the artery in the arm
bradycardia
abnormally slow heart rate
bundle of his
specialized conduction tissue in the interventricular septum divides into the right and left branches
capillary
smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products
carbon dioxide
gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine
cardiogenic shock
inadequate functioning of heart (heart attack or heart disease)
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
coronary arteries
the two arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle
cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes
deoxygenated blood
blood that is oxygen poor
diastole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
electrocardiogram
a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease
endocardium
inner lining of the heart
endothelium
innermost lining of blood vessel
hypercholesterolemia
excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
interventricular septum
wall between the right and left ventricles
mitral valve
a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle
mitral valvulitis
Inflammation of the mitral valve.
myocardium
heart muscle
myxoma
Benign tumor of the heart. The tumor is embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue.
normal sinus rhythm
heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute
oxygen
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker
a device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart to regulate the heartbeat
pericardiocentesis
surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart in order to remove fluid
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
phlebotomy
incision of a vein
pulmonary artery
artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
pulmonary valve
valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart
pulse
the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart
septum
a wall of tissue that separates the left and right sides of the heart
sinoatrial node
pacemaker of the heart
sphygmomanometer
a pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope
instrument used for listening to internal body sounds
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
systole
contraction of the heart
tachycardia
rapid heart beat
thrombolysis
destruction of a clot
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein with clot formation
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valve
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward
valvotomy
incision of a valve
valvuloplasty
surgical repair of a heart valve
vascular
pertaining to blood vessels
vasoconstriction
reduction in the lumen as the smooth muscle contracts
vasodilation
widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow
vein
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
vena cava
largest vein in the body
venipuncture
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
venous
pertaining to a vein or the veins
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
venule
a vessel that carries blood from a capillary to a vein
Ace inhibitor
angiotensin-converting enzyme; relax blood vessels; blood pressure hypertension and heart failure
acute coronary syndrome
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart
aneurysm
local widening of an artery
angina
pain or discomfort in the chest or adjacent areas caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle and a build up of lactic acid
angiography
X-ray of the blood vessels after injecting a contrast medium
atrioventricular block
failure of proper conduction of impulses from SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle - bundle of His
atrial fibrillation
when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid, irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall
auscultation
hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
beta blocker
A drug that slows heart rate, lowers blood pressure, controls angina and protects patients with prior heart attacks from future heart attacks
bruit
soft, blowing sound heard on auscultation; murmur
calcium channel blocker
Drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure (hypertension).
cardiac arrest
Sudden, unexpected stopping of heart action; sudden cardiac death
cardiac catheterization
A thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
cardiac MRI
Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
cardioversion
procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
claudication
the process of lameness, limping; may result from inadequate blood supply to the muscles in the leg
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
computed tomography angiography
three dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography.
congenital heart disease
heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure
The inability of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body, or requiring elevated filling pressures in order to pump effectively
coronary artery disease
disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
coronary artery bypass graft
surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a blood clot in a deep vein on the body, occurring most frequently in the iliac and femoral veins.
digoxin
digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia
digital subtraction angiography
a process of radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that removes structures not being studied
doppler ultrasound
a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels
echocardiography
recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
electrocardiography
process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
electron beam computed tomography
Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose CAD
embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
endartectomy
surgical removal of plaque from an artery that is narrowed or blocked
endocarditits
inflammation of the inner layer of the heart
extracorporeal circulation
pertaining to the circulation of the blood outside the body via a heart-lung machine or hemodialyze
fibrillation
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
flutter
abnormally rapid beating of the auricles of the heart (especially in a regular rhythm)
heart transplantation
replacement of a diseased or malfunctioning heart with a donor's heart.
hemorrhoids
varicose veins near the anus.
holter monitoring
an ECG device is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmia and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm.
infarction
necrosis of tissue due to ischemia
ischemia
insufficient blood flow to an area
left ventricular assist device
Booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle. An LVAD is a "bridge to transplant" or destination therapy when heart transplantation is impossible.
lipid tests
measurement of cholesterol triglycerides (fats) in blood sample
lipoprotein electrophoresis
lipoproteins are physically separated in a blood sample
mitral stenosis
narrowing of the mitral valve
mitral valve prolapse
improper closure of the mitral valve
murmur
an abnormal sound of the heart
myocardial infarction
death of the heart muscle; heart attack
nitroglycerin
A nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion
closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)
palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias
patent ductus arteriosus
a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth
percutaneous coronary intervention
a balloon tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery, stents are put in place
pericardial friction rub
Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis
pericarditis
inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
peripheral vascular disease
blockage of blood vessels outside the heart
petechiae
small pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
positron emission tomography
using a computerized radiographic technique to examine the metabolic activity in various tissues (especially in the brain)
radiofrequency catheter ablation
destruction of abnormal cardiac electrical pathways causing arrhythmias.
Raynaud disease
Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
septal defects
Small holes in the septa between the atria and ventricles
serum enzyme tests
chemicals measured in blood as evidence heart attack
statins
drugs that have powerful lipid lowering properties
stress test
performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress
telemetry
electronic transmission of data
tetralogy of fallot
A congenital malformation of the heart involving for distinct defects.
technetium 99m sestamibi scan
A radioactive chemical is injected IV and shows perfusion of blood in heart muscle. It is taken up in the area of a myocardial infarction, producing hot spots
thrill
vibration felt on palpation of the chest
thrombolytic therapy
therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot
thrombotic occlusion
blockage of a vessel due to a clot
varicose veins
abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
vegatations
clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on the endocardium in conditions such as bacterial endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.