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Munich Pact

Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Germany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia(sudetenland) to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time"

Non-Aggression Pact (soviets and germany)

agreement that Germany and the USSR signed that said they wouldn't attack eachother

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war


"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939


allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."


a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.

Marshall Plan

A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.

Rosie the Riveter

Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs.

Manhattan Project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Bataan Death March

April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.


june 6,1944; under dwight d. eisenhower allied forces landed on the beach and was greatest naval invasion.

Spanish Civil War

Civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government


The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.


an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler

Operation Sea Lion

Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during World War II, beginning in 1940.

United Nations

organization founded after World War II to promote international peace and cooperation.


Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.


Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys

Nuremberg Trials

Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes


the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis during WWII


North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

(1931) Seizure of the Manchurian city of Mukden (now Shenyang, China). Responding to Russian pressure from the north and to the increasingly successful unification of China by Chiang Kai-shek, the Japanese garrison in Manchuria used the pretext of an explosion along its railway to occupy Mukden. With reinforcements from the Japanese colony of Korea, its army had occupied all of Manchuria within three months. The Chinese withdrew, and the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Battle of the Bulge

World War II battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west

El Alamein

a decisive Allied victory by British troops under Montgomery over German troops under Rommel


Important battle, broke Japanese supremacy in Pacific, Stalled Japanese offensive

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.


Fought during the winter of 1942, it was the first major Soviet victory of World War II and a turning point for the Allies. It claimed more lives than any other singles conflict in the War but prevented the Nazis from capturing Russia and was a crucial factor in their eventual defeat.


(Southeast Asia Treaty Org.) U.S., Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand to stem Soviet agression in E.

Causes of WW1

killing of the duke: unknown alliances etween countries

Bloody Sunday

1905; peaceful march by russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds

Nicholas the second

last russian tsar from 1894 to 1917 discontent with his polices led to the russian revoultion of 1917


Means "minority". Group created from the split of the SDs, led by Martov. Tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.


Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution. (majority)

Alexander Kernesky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confescated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.

New Economic Policy

Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry


Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful

Armenian Genocide

the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

signed March 1918 removing Russia from WWI. give up poland, ukraine, Baltic states and Finland to Germany but get it back after the war.

League of Nations

An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace. NOT SUCCESFUL

Schlieffen Plan

germany's plan to march though Belgium and conquer France in order to avoid fighting on two fronts

Mao Zedong

This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life. founded the chinese peoples republic

Great Leap Forward

China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.

Cultural Revolution

Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.(p. 848)

Red Guards

The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. Wore red arm bands and carried his book. Terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps.

Hiroshima Nagasaki

Two atomic bombs were dropped on these two Japanese cities in August 1945 in an effort to end the war in Asia; use alphabetical order

Berlin Airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

Yalta Conference

"The Big Three", when Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in February of '45


a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States


relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China

Cuban Missle Crisis

The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.

Dawes Plan

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Iron Curtain

a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

Domino Theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Mein Kampf

Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)


Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia

Nuremberg Laws

established legal basis in Nazi Germany for discrimination against Jews.

Spanish Civil War

Civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

5 year Plans

Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet Union's economy. The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these targets, the government limited production of consumer goods. As a result, people faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.

WW2 Alliances

Russia and Germany: America and Britain and Russia: Poland and France


political system based on a strong centralized government headed by a dictator


A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Paris Peace Conference

The peace conference that decided the terms of WWI peace and Treaty of Versailles.

Chinese Nationalists

led by Jiang Jieshi; fought communists but end up fleeing

Chinese Communists

led by Mao Zedong; fought Nationalists; win and take over country

Adolf Hitler

Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers' Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II. (p. 786)

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