232 terms

Biology Final

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autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
photoautotrophs
organisms that make their food from the sun
stomata
the openings of the leaf
thylakoids
membranous sacs, stacked to form a granum
photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy
light reaction
The first step in photosynthesis that involves the splitting of water
electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves
photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
clorophyll
A green material that plants use for photosynthesis
carotenoids
Accessory pigments that broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
reaction center
The location of the first light driven chemical reaction of photosynthesis.
photosystem II
light harvesting structure; light waves P680
photosystem I
P700, makes NADPH, does not take place first
chemiosmosis
the use of energy in a H+ gradient to drive cellular work
photophosphorylation
light-mediated oxidative phosphorylation
calvin cycle
Carbon fixation process in photosynthesis. Forms sugar and other organic compounds.
G3P
Glyceraldehide Three Phosphate
producer
an organism that produces its own food using sunlight energy
mesophyll
the tissue in the interior of the leaf
stroma
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
granum
stacks of thylakoids
wavelength
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
photosystem
A cluster of pigments embedded into a thylakoid membrane.
NADPH
molecule that carries electrons in photosynthesis
electron transport chain
Breaks the fall of electrons to oxygen in several energy-releasing steps.
ATP synthase
protein structure in cell mitochondria that uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP
RuBP
Ribulose Bisphosphate
carbon fixation
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds.
life cycle
the complete process of change and development during somebody's lifetime
genome
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
chromosome
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells; mainly in bacteria
sister chromatids
two identical chromosomes that make up a duplicated chromosome
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
interphase
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
cytokinesis
the splitting of daughter cells
prophase
Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
cell plate
structure that divided the cytoplasm in plant cells during cytokinesis
density dependent inhibition
crowded cells stop dividing
cancer cells
cells that spread and can be fixed by radiaton, chemo, or surgery
benign tumor
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
metastasis
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
sarcomas
Cancers that originate in supporting tissues
lymphomas
lymphatic cancers that usually originate in isolated lymph nodes
homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
sex chromosomes
The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics
diploid cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
haploid cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
zygote
Fertilized egg
crossing over
The exchange of genes on homologous chromosomes during meiosis
genetic recombination
the production of new combinations of genes due to crossing over
trisomy 21
down syndrome's real name
nondisjunction
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes (Egg/Sperm) from two parents unite
asexual reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
centromere
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
mitosis
The division of the cell nucleus and its contents.
mitotic phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
metaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
telophase
A complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell.
cleavage furrow
The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell; animal cells do this
anchorage dependent inhibition
the need for cells to be adhered to or in contact with another layer of cells
growth factor
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide.
cell cycle control
a network of regulatory proteins which monitors and dictates the progression of the cell through the cell cycle
tumor
a mass of abnormal cells
malignant tumor
a cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs
carcinomas
Cancers of the epithelial tissue; generally skin cancers
leukemias
cancers of blood-forming cells, generally white blood cells
somatic cells
Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
autosomes
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
locus
Location of a gene on a chromosome
gametes
haploid reproductive cells
fertilization
Fusion of an egg and sperm cell
meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
chiasma
site of crossing over
karyotype
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Down syndrome
disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair; discovered by John Down
wild type
the natural, non-mutated form of a genetic trait most found in the wild
self fertilization
Fertilization in which both egg and pollen come from the same plant
cross
mating of two organisms
F1 generation
first generation of offspring
alleles
The different forms of a gene
recessive allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
heterozygous
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
dihybrid cross
A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
rule of multiplication
rule of probability can be applied to this phenomenon of the independent transmission of characteristics
cystic fibrosis
a hereditary disorder affecting the exocrine glands. It causes the production of abnormally thick mucus, leading to the blockage of the pancreatic ducts, intestines, and bronchi and often resulting in respiratory infection
Huntington's disease
a hereditary disease marked by degeneration of the brain cells and causing chorea and progressive dementia
chorionic villus sampling
used for the same procedure as amniocentesis but an alternate source.
fetoscopy
an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow access to the fetus, the amniotic cavity, the umbilical cord, and the fetal side of the placenta
ABO blood groups
Multiple alleles expression in humans resulting in four different blood groups
pleiotropy
the production by a single gene of two or more apparently unrelated effects
polygenic inheritence
when one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes
recombination frequency
the percentage of recombinant progeny produced in a cross
color blindness
Deficiency in the ability to distinguish among colors.
Duchenne M.D.
An inherited disorder of progressive muscular weakness, typically in boys.
genetics
The scientific study of heredity
hybrids
offspring that result from an interspecific mating
P generation
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F2 generation
the generation of a cross between two heterozygous organisms
monohybrid cross
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
dominant allele
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
homozygous
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Punnett square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
principle of segregation
The two members of a gene pair segregate from each other in the formation of gametes
principle of independent assortment
traits are inherited independently of one another
test cross
Testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive
rule of addition
When two events, A and B, are mutually exclusive, the probability that A or B will occur is the sum of the probability of each even
achondroplasia
abnormal, slow growth of long bones; results in unusually short, stocky limbs; dwarfism
amniocentesis
needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis
ultrasound
test that uses sound waves to make a video image of an unborn baby
incomplete dominance
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
codominance
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
genetic screening
the systematic search for individuals with a specific genotype in a delineated population.
chromosome theory of inheritance
a basic principle in biology stating that gens are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns
monoecious
having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
sex-linked gene
gene located on a sex chromosome
hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing
bacteriophages
viruses that infect bacteria
sugar-phosphate backbone
the main backbone of DNA/RNA that has both a sugar and phosphate group
cytosine
a single-ring nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA; matches with guanine
guanine
a double-ring nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine
DNA polymerase
a large molecular couples that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template
translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in mRNA molecule
codon
a three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid
RNA polymerase
copies RNA from a DNA template
terminator
a sequence of nitrogenous bases that tell RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule
tRNA
the RNA that carries the amino acid
mRNA
the RNA that code for an amino acid
rRNA
the RNA that makes up ribosomes
stop codon
a codon that stops transcription; UUA, UGA, and UAG
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
mutagenesis
the production of mutations
lytic cycle
virus enters the cell, makes copies of itself, and then causes the cell to burst
prophage
the genetic material of a bacteriophage, incorporated into the genome of a bacterium and able to produce phages if specifically activated
retrovirus
virus that contains RNA as its genetic information
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; caused by HIV
molecular biology
the study of heredity at the molecular level
nucleotide
a monomer of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
thymine
a single-ring nitrogenous base that is in DNA; pairs with adenine
adenine
a double-ring nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA
double helix
the general form of DNA
DNA ligase
an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA polynucleotide strands
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located near the start of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and is the place where transcription begins
anticodon
a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to the codon triplet on mRNA
start codon
The specific three nucleotide sequence to which the initiator tRNA molecule binds starting translation of genetic information; AUG
reading frame
The way cells's mRNA translated machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides and codons
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
lysogenic cycle
A type of bacteriophage replication cycle in which the viral genome is incorporated into the bacterial cell as a prophage
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme used by retroviruses that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus; The retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and causes AIDS
Animalia
taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
blastura
in embryonic stage that marks the end of cleavage during anal development; the hollow ball of cells in many species
gastrula
The embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development
sponges
and aquatic animal characterized by a highly porous body
radial symmetry
an arrangement of the body parts of an organism like pieces of a pie or an imaginary central axis
choanocyte
flagellated feeding cell found in sponges
Cnidarian
an animal characterized by cnidocytes , radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and a polyp and medusa body form
gastrovascular cavity
A central compartment with a single opening, the mouth; functions in both digestion and nutrient distribution and may also function circulation, how do you support, waste disposal, and gas exchange
bilateral symmetry
and arrangement of body parts such as an organism can be divided equally by Single Cut passing longitudinally through it
posterior
pertaining to the rear, or tail, of a bilaterally symmetric animal
ventral
pertaining to the underside, or bottom, of a bilaterally symmetric animal
pseudocoelom
A body cavity that is not lined with mesoderm and is in direct contact with the wall of the digestive tract
metamorphosis
transformation of a larva into an adult
porifera
The class that sponges fall under
medusa
One of two types in the door in body forms; an umbrella like body form
cnidocyte
is specialized cell for which the phylum Cnidaria is named; consist of a capsule containing a fine coil thread, which, when discharged, functions in the fence and pray capture
anterior
pertaining to the front, or head, of a bilaterally symmetric animal
dorsal
pertaining to the back of a bilaterally symmetric animal
lateral
pertaining to the side of a bilaterally symmetric animal
coelom
A body cavity completely lined with mesoderm
annelid
segmented worm
chordata
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
segmentation
refers to a body composed of a series of repeating similar units; generally in annelids
circulatory system
the organ system that moves blood throughout the body
open circulatory system
system where blood bathes the internal organs; generally in incests
closed circulatory system
blood moves continuously through vessels that are separated from body fluids
blood
the fluid tissue in the body; what is pumped in a circulatory system
arteries
carry blood away from the heart
capillaries
A tiny blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries to the smallest veins; where the exchange of gases happen
atrium
Upper chamber of the heart; where blood enters the heart
ventricle
Lower chamber of the heart; where blood is pumped from the heart
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillary beds
What a bunch of capillaries are called
venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
single circulation
A circulatory system where blood passes through the heart once
double circulation
A circulatory system where the blood passes through the heart twice
systemic circuit
The blood circuit that is a part of the body
pulmonary circuit
The blood circuit that is part of the lungs
pulmonary arteries
Arteries that carry blood to the lungs to get oxygenated
pulmonary veins
Veins that carry blood from the lungs to get pumped from the heart to the rest of the body
aorta
largest artery in the body
superior vena cava
The vein that carries blood from the top portion of the body to the heart
inferior vena cava
The vein that carries blood from the lower portion of the body to the heart
AV valves
a valve in the heart through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
semilunar valves
each of a pair of valves in the heart, at the bases of the aorta and the pulmonary artery, consisting of three cusps or flaps that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart
mitral valve
left atrioventricular valve separating the left atrium and ventricle
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
pulmonic valve
right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
cardiac cycle
a complete round of systole and diastole
diastole
Relaxation of the heart
systole
contraction of the heart
cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute via heart rate and stroke volume
heart rate
how often the heart beats each minute
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
SA node
pacemaker of the heart
heart attack
a restriction of blood flow to the heart, resulting in damage to the heart muscle
cardiovascular disease
abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels
stroke
loss of brain function caused by interruption of blood flow/supply to the brain
atherosclerosis
plaques of fatty deposits formed in the inner layer (intima) of the arteries
embolism
the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
blood pressure
the fluid pressure produced through the contraction of the ventricles of the heart
hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
plasma
Fluid portion of blood
red blood cells
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
white blood cells
Blood cells that help fight diseases and viruses
platelets
thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting
erythrocytes
What red blood cells are actually called
leukocytes
What white blood cells are actually called
phagocytes
A type of white blood cell that ingests invading microbes
anemia
lack of a normal number of red blood cells
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
fibrin
A protien formed during normal blood clotting tht is the essence of the clot
multipotent stem cells
A stem cell that can be changed into many other cells
leukemia
disease when the blood is taken over by white blood cells and their precursors