FA: Respiratory Diseases

are right or left lungs larger in the cow? is the mediastinum complete or incomplete?
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what is the best diagnostic test for evaluating the environment in the lung/culture respiratory disease?transtracheal washwhat is the best diagnostic test for submitting cytology?bronchoalveolar lavage (NOT good for culture though)when are nasal swabs helpful for diagnosis?when trying to isolate VIRUSES or pure cultures of non-commensals (mycoplasma)what is the causative agent of mycotic nasal granuloma? who gets it?rhinosporidium spp. no breed, sex, gender, or season predilectionwhat are clinical signs of mycotic nasal granuloma and how is it diagnosed?epistaxis, nasal discharge endoscopy/histopathhow is mycotic nasal granuloma treated?antifungals are illegal in FA sodium iodide or surgerywhich breeds are more often associated with allergic rhinitis, a hypersensitivity I reaction to plant pollen/fungal spores?channel island breeds friesianswhat type of weather and what clinical signs are associated with allergic rhinitis?warm, moist environment intense pruritis granulomas + pale pink, flat plaques (also stertor, nasal discharge, dyspnea)what will impression smear of the plaques show with allergic rhinitis? how is this treated?eosinophils antihistamines (not labeled for FA) or steroids/dexamethasone (cause abortions)what retroviruses are associated w/enzootic nasal tumors? where does neoplastic transformation occur?ovine/caprine nasal adenocarcinoma virus secretory epithelial cells of nasal turbinatesnasal tumors present with open mouth breathing/dyspnea, discharge and other non-specific upper respiratory signs. How is it treated?surgical removal - recurs and lots of bleeding at surgerySinusitis is more common in cattle than small ruminants. What are some causes?dehorning (frontal) infected teeth (maxillary) extension of tumor/infection like Actinomyces trauma - broken horn,facial fxAt what age does the horn attach to periosteum of the frontal sinus? at what age does the cornual diverticulum open into the horn?2 mo - periosteum 6 mo - cornual diverticulumwhat are clinical signs of sinusitis?lethargy, fever, anorexia frontal bone distortion, exophthalmos neuro abnormalities nasal dischargeClinical signs and history are usually enough to diagnose sinusitis. How is it treated?trephination - flush daily with dilute antiseptic - Penicillinwhat are some clinical signs of pharyngeal trauma, as seen with misuse of a balling gun?ptyalism, trouble eating/anorexia dysphagia/bloat throat edema fever gas in tissues seen on radsHow is pharyngeal trauma treated?Abs + NSAIDs open/drain abscesses (ventral) may need temporary rumenostomy/tracheostomywhen performing ER tracheotomy, should you cut in the cranial, middle, or distal third of the neck? why?middle 1/3 cranial - can damage thyroid or cut into larynx caudal - trachea deeper- more dissection/more dead space/infectionWhat is the causative agent for necrotic laryngitis? what is another name for this disease?fusobacterium necrophorum Calf Diptheriawho is affected by necrotic laryngitis?feedlot calves 3-18mo fall and winterHow does fusobacterium necrophorum cause a problem in the larynx since it can not invade intact mucosa?viruses (IBR) or bacteria (mannheimia) infections lead to coughing and laryngeal ulceration - F. necrophorum can penetrate, causing major infection and swellingClinical signs of necrotic laryngitis are similar to those of balling gun injuries, but how is this condition treated?oxytetracycline (or sulfas, penicillin) NSAIDs (no aspirin since given orally, avoid PO)what are some secondary complications associated with laryngeal damage?chronic roarer aspiration pneumonia chronic poor doerBovine Respiratory Disease Complex is most prevalent after shipping and comingling cattle. How long after shipping do signs typically occur?7-10 days after movingwhat are typical signs of BRDC?cough (moist or dry), labored breathing depressed, separated from group, don't go to offered food nasal discharge, dirty nose foul breath, oral erosionswhat viral pathogens are associated with BRDC?IBR (BHV-1) BVDV PI3 BRSVwhat bacteria are associated with BRDC?Mannheimia hemolytica Pasteurella multocida Histophilus somni Mycoplasma bovis Arcanobacter pyogenshow does level of fever and type of nasal discharge compare between viruses and bacteria?virus: hi fever, serous discharge bacteria: mild to moderate fever; purulent dischargeIs animal more likely to be depressed with viral or bacterial respiratory infection?bacterial = depressed viral = more alertis viral or bacterial respiratory illness more likely to cause pleural friction rubs and wheezes/crackles?bacteria (viral = incr. bronchovesicular tone)what are the components of shipping fever and cause bronchopneumonia?PI3, IBR, BVD Histophilus, Mannheimiawhat are the components of enzootic calf pneumonia and cause bronchopneumonia?PI3, IBR, BVD Pasteurellawhat are causes of interstitial pneumonia?BRSV Fog FeverWhich respiratory virus is herpes 1? where does this virus reside while latent?Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (red nose) *trigeminal nerve* - reactivated by stress - shed in ocular/nasal secretionsIs IBR more prevalent in feedlots, beef calf/cow, or dairy operations? what age are cattle? how long is incubation?feedlots > 6 mo incubation 2-6 dayswhat are classic clinical signs for IBR?high fever hyperemia of nasal turbinates/muzzle/hard palate ("red nose") "sewer pipe trachea" conjunctivitis/corneal edema abortionsIs IBR associated with high or low fatality rates? are abortions associated with IBR?low fatality (unless complicated by 2ndary bacteria) abortion storms may occurHow is IBR diagnosed?virus isolation nasal swabs fluorescent antibodieswhat is treatment for IBR? is there a vaccine?Abs to prevent 2ndary bacterial supportive (NSAIDs, fluids, etc) monitor cornea intranasal vx during outbreak (interferon); injectable MLV for prevention (within 48 hrs)What paramyxovirus has high antibody prevalence in feedlots, indicating it is endemic? Does this virus cause problems in young or adults?parainfluenza 3 *young* affected - the older the cow the more protective antibodieswhat are clinical signs and necropsy findings for parainfluenza 3? how is it diagnosed?non-specific viral signs (cough, fever, tachypnea) but *mild signs* no specific necropsy lesions since most have antibodies, single titers not helpfulwhat is treatment for parainfluenza? is there a vaccine?supportive care vaccine for preventionwhat paramyxovirus causes severe signs in young by affecting respiratory cilia?bovine respiratory syncytial viruswhat type of pneumonia is associated with BRSV?interstitial pneumonia - edematous/heavy wet lungs emphysema in dorsum SQ if bulla ruptureSigns associated with BRSV can be severe or animal can be found dead. What are ways to diagnose BRSV ante mortem and post mortem?AM: virus isolation, serology, IF on nasal swabs PM: interstitial pneumonia, emphasematous bulla, IHwhat is tx for BRSV? is there a vaccine?Abs if concerned about 2ndary bacteria + dexamethasone (to stop inflammation) or antihistamines (unavailable for cattle) vaccine for prevention, highly effectivewhy should you avoid lush grass and legumes in patients with BRSV?can lead to "Fog Fever" (synergism with ABPEE)What virus primarily targets GI but can lead to pneumonia when cow is immunosuppressed and has synergism with other pathogens?Bovine Viral DiarrheaIs there a vaccine for BVD? what happens to fetus if mom gets infected while pregnant?yes, vaccines abortion, cerebellar hypoplasia, or born normal but persistently infected/sheddingwhat type of pneumonia does mannheimia hemolytica cause?fibrinouswhat are some of the virulence factors associated with mannheimia?leukotoxin endotoxin fimbria (protease, capsular-polysaccharide, outer membrane components)Is pasteurella more or less virulent than mannheimia? Is it considered a primary or secondary pathogen?less severe signs - vague/no clinical signs ("lungers" but not dead) secondary (commensal in nasopharynx)what enables pasteurella to resist phagocytosis? What type of pneumonia will it cause?capsule and LPS purulent pneumonia - leukotoxins kill WBCs - inflammation - more WBCs; bacteria grow on inflammatory fluidswhat respiratory complex is pasteurella associated with? what conditions lead to this problem?Enzootic Calf Pneumonia poor ventilation or housed with adultsPasteurella does not cause severe disease but what is the problem with this type of pneumonia?chronic poor doers - poor wt gain chronic lung pathology - won't respond to well to treatmentsIs it a good idea to use a rebreathing bag to evaluate a subclinical pasteurella pneumonia? is there a vaccine?yes, use rebreathing bag and stethescope far under olecranon yes, vaccinewhat are 5 systems histophilus somni can affect?CNS - high fever, seizures, ataxia Respiratory muskuloskeletal - joint swellings/lameness reproductive cardiovascular - sudden death (commensal in upper resp. and urogenital)what is pathophysiology associated with histophilus somni?attach to endothelium in vessels - expose collagen - plt adhesion - thrombus - localized anoxia/tissue destruction, can gain access to blood stream and spreadwhat are necropsy findings in feedlot with histophilus somni respiratory infection?necrotic layngitis and tracheitis fibrinous bronchopneumonia fibrinous pleuritishow is histophilus diagnosed in the respiratory system? is there a vaccine?necropsy, transtracheal wash culture vx may be helpfulwhat are 5 common infections caused by mycoplasma bovis?pneumonia arthritis tenosynovitis otitis media mastitisHow does mycoplasma create pathology in the lungs?attaches to resp. endothelium - migrates between cilia - toxins - incr. vascular permeability - systemic spread possibleCoughing and nasal discharge are NOT consistent with mycoplasma infection, so what other signs can you look for?drooping ears (facial n. paralysis, vestibular signs) + fever/anorexia not responding to treatment as expectedwhat will lungs look like on necropsy with mycoplasma infection?dark red, firm, consolidated cranioventral lobes yellow/white firm nodules - coagulation necrosis enlarged septa from edema and fibrinSince mycoplasma does not respond well to traditionally used Abs, what should you use?Tulathromycin (Draxxin) do not use fluorquinolones in dairy = illegal!what is the fancy name for Fog Fever? who is affected?Acute Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema and Edema adult beef cattlewhat causes fog fever?eating growing grasses high in soluble CHO and proteins (alfalfa lush pastures in the fall; 4-10 d after new pasture) *no fever* and non-infectioushow do lush pastures lead to fog fever? what type of pneumonia results?high levels of L-tryptophan - rumen lactobacillus converts it to 3methylindole - affects clara cells and type 2pneumocytes - interstitial pneumoniawhat are clinical signs associated w/Fog Fever, interstitial pneumonia? how severe is disease? young or adults?acute - death without signs in some cases adults (young w/o functioning rumen not affected) *afebrile* - non infectious; loud respiratory grunt aggressive when anoxic SQ emphysemawhich lobes are most affected by interstitial pneumonia? what other signs are seen at necropsy?caudal lobes emphysema in mediastinum rubbery lungs pneumothorax if ruptured bullaewhat meds can be given to prevent formation of 3methylindole?monensin lasalocid (ionophores to shift microbe population)What is the cause of a reportable, zoonotic pneumonia in cattle that is carried in the deer population?tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) -miliary nodules throughout the bodywhat are clinical signs of tuberculosis infection?unthrifty, *wt loss* more common than typical pneumonia signshow is tuberculosis initially diagnosed?single intradermal (caudal fold) test = 0.1 tuberculin injected then reck in 72 hours (delayed type 4 hypersensitivity)If there caudal fold test is positive, what test is done next? what is treatment if this is also positive?state veterinarian does comparative cervical test no treatment, eradicationupon arrival to feedlot, should you start non-protein nitrogen feed? Antibiotics in the water as prevention? Give MLV for common diseases?avoid NPN feed at first no Abs in water - decr. water intake no MLV or surgery at firstwhat are common vaccines for cattle?clostridia IBR BVD IP3 BRSV mannhemia? pasteurella? brucellosis in dairy calveswhat antibiotic is labeled for treatment of pneumonia and has NO milk WDT? is it bacteriocidal or static?ceftiofur (Naxcel) - 4 day meat WDT bacterioCIDAL (inhibits cell wall synthesis)which drug has same properties as ceftiofur but is administered at base or middle 1/3 of ear and has a 2 week meat WDT, still no milk WDT?Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid (Excede = one time injectable version of naxcel)what kind of drug is tilmicosin and what does it treat?macrolide M. hemolytica *not labelled for dairy >20mo* toxic to humansCan sulfadimethoxine (Albon) be used in lactating dairy? is there milk WDT?yes but NOT in preruminating or veal calves 60 hour WDT in milk; 5days in meatwhat are milk and meat WDT for oxytetracycline, LA200?28d for meat 96hr for milkIn addition to tilmicosin, what are other Abs not labelled for use in lactating dairy?oxytetracycline - Tetradure 300 Florfenicol (Nuflor) Enrofloxacin (Baytril) - extralabel prohibited for all cattle Tulathromycin (Draxxin)