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Samuel T. Orton, MD (1879-1946),
Physician/neuropsychiatrist/pathologist. Concept of "multisensory" teaching - integrating kinesthetic (movement-based) and tactile (sensory-based) learning strategies with the teaching of visual and auditory concepts. Reading instruction that integrated right and left brain functions. Influenced by the work of fellow psychiatrist Grace Fernald.
Grace Fernald (1879-1950)
Professor of psychology at the University of California at LA. Developed a kinesthetic approach involving writing in the air and tracing words in large written or scripted format, while simultaneously saying the names and sounds of the letters. The Fernald Method.
Lauretta Bender (1897-1987)
Child neuropsychiatrist. Worked at Bellevue Hospital in NYC 1930-1956. Creator of the Bender-Gestalt test. The test is typically among the top five tests used by clinical psychologists. It measures perceptual motor skills, perceptual motor development and gives an indication of neurological intactness. It has been used as a personality test and a test of emotional problems.
Katrina de Hirsch (1903-1996)
Frankfort-born protege of Samuel Orton. Worked in the Language Disorder Clinic Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center New York. Contributed to the understanding of developmental language disabilities, particularly in the areas of neurophysiological immaturity, the cluttering syndrome, the prediction of reading failure, and normal language development. Co-author with Jeanette Jansky of "Presenting Reading Failure" (1972)
Anna Gillingham (1878-1964)
Educator and psychologist. Introduced, compiled and published a systematic and orderly approach of categorizing and teaching set of 70 phonograms, single letters and letter pairs representing the 44 phonemes of English. Trained teachers and worked with Dr. Orton.
Bessie Stillman (d1947)
Teacher. Worked closely with Anna Gillingham and develop the Gillingham-Stilman training manuals.
Margaret Byrd Rawson (1899-2001)
Education researcher, sociologist, psychologist, writer. Author of a study called "Dyslexia Over the Lifespan which followed the lives/careers of 56 dyslexic boys and concluded that with proper instruction, they could lead fulfilling lives and have successful careers. Co-founder of the Jemicy School.
Beth Slingerland (1900-1989)
Teacher, tutor, teacher educator. Classroom O-G instruction developed while in Punahou School in Hawaii.. Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific language disability (grades 1-6).
Sally B. Childs
Teacher of children & teachers, researcher. Student and professional "heir" to Anna Gillingham.
Psychologist and professor emerita at Harvard's Graduate School of Education. Among the first to describe learning to read as a developmental process and to advocate for the use of both phonics and exposure to challenging literature as the best method of teaching young children to read. She produced the definitive study of reading instruction in her 1967 book, "Learning to Read: the Great Debate". In the weeks before she died she completed work on her book: "The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really Works in Classrooms". Founded the Harvard Reading Laboratory in 1966.
MacDonald O. Critchley, MD (1900-1997)
UK neurologist, King's College Hospital. Neuro-linguistic complexities of dyslexia and human communication generally. Research included parietal lobe function, dyslexia, and the language of gesture.
Clinical psychologist, teacher, trainer, author. Helped establish the Jemicy School in 1973.
Lucius Waites, MD
Pediatric neurologist, Texas. Co-developed Alphabetic Phonics. Founder of the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital's Child Development Devision.
Paula Dozier Rome, Jean Osman
Co-authored "The Language Too Kit", an internationally recognized text for teaching those with dyslexia. Minnesota.
The Spalding Method, diagnostic, total language arts instruction. "The Writing Road to Reading".
Norman Geschwind, MD (1926-1984)
Neurologist, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA. "Split brain" theory, hemispheric specialization, etiology (causation or origination) of dyslexia. Wrote 1961 report with Kaplan on first modern case of the disconnection, or "split-brain" syndrome in humans.
Diana Hanbury King
Founder of the Kidonan School and Dunnebeck Camp for dyslexic students. She now writes and lectures, trains teachers, and tutors students in reading.
William Ellis, (1940-1995)
Educator, New York. Served as director of professional services of the New Yor-based National Center for Learning Disabilities.
Isabelle Y. Liberman
Univeristy of Conneticut professor. Research in the phonological processes in literacy; specifically the importance of explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation; phonemic/phonological awareness.
Alice H. Garside
Practitioner, writer, author. Developed a series of controlled readers for dyslexics; writes information pamphlets for IDA.
C. Wilson Anderson, Jr.
Teacher, author, producer of videos and computer programs. Well known for his ability to translate theory into practical and common sense strategies which produce the desired educational results.
Jeannette J. Jansky, PhD
Educational Director of the Hirsch-Robinson Reading Clinic at NY Medical Center.
Rosa A. Hagin, PhD
Research professor of psychology @ NYU School of Medicine. Her research in conjunction with Dr. Silver, in the area of the neuropsychological core of reading is the foundation for many NILD techniques.
Priscilla L. Vail
Teacher, author. Her work centered on the identification of different learning styles and their accommodation in the regular classroom, small groups and individual work.
Howard Garnder, PhD
Multiple Intelligences Theory; Emotional IQ; 8 Categories of Intelligence: logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and emotional.
Director of the Center for the Study of Dyslexia and Talent, George Mason U. Studies talent and giftedness in dyslexics.
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