75 terms

SOL: Life Science Vocabulary Review

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Abiotic
Nonliving features of an ecosystem such as climate, light, soil, chemistry, and water availability.
Adaptation
A characteristic, arising from natural selection, that improves a population's chance of survival and ability for reproduction.
Amphibian
A vertebrate that spends it's early life in water and it's adult life on land.
Arachnid
An arthropod with two body sections, four pairs of legs, and no antennae.
Arthropod
An invertebrate that has an external skeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages.
Asexual Reproduction
Mode of reproduction in which offspring arise from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only.
Behavior
A response to external and internal stimuli.
Binomial Nomenclature
System for naming organisms in which each organism is given a unique, two-part scientific name.
Biome
A large, relatively distinct terrestrial region, encompassing many interacting ecosystems, and characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs on Earth. A biome is commonly
named for its plant cover.
Biotic
Living features of an ecosystem including the interactions between living organisms distinct from abiotic factors.
Carnivore
A consumer that eats only animals.
Cell
The smallest unit of life capable of carrying on life's functions.
Cell Respiration
A process by which energy stored in molecules is released
within plant and animal cells.
Classification System
A structured organizer used to determine groups based
on similar characteristics.
Climate
The average temperature and rainfall for a particular place over hundreds or thousands of years.
Community
An association of different species living together at the same time in a defined habitat with some degree of mutual dependence.
Competition
The result of a common demand by two or more organisms or types of organisms for limited resources.
Consumer
Organism that eats other organisms for food.
Crustacean
An arthropod that has two or three body sections, five or more pairs of legs, and two pairs of antennae.
Decomposer
An organism that obtains energy from decaying organic material.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
Ecosystem
A group or community of organisms interacting with their environment.
Environment
The physical surroundings of an organism which includes the living and nonliving components.
Estuary
Coastal body of water (such as the Chesapeake Bay) that connects to the oceans where fresh water from a river mixes with saltwater from the ocean.
Evolution
Changes in a species as a consequence of processes such as mutation and natural selection.
Extinction
The elimination of a species due to natural processes or human activity.
Food
Substances that provide carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins as an energy source to living organisms.
Food Chain
The feeding relationships of species that transfer energy through the organisms in a community.
Food Web
The complex interconnection of food chains in an ecosystem.
Genome
All of the DNA in one cell of an organism that carries the "blueprint" or instructions for making the entire organism.
Habitat
The local environment in which a specified organism, population, or species lives, characterized by it's physical and chemical features.
Herbivore
A consumer that eats only plants.
Host
An organism that supports a parasite either in or on its own body and to its own detriment.
Inherit
To receive a characteristic or trait from an ancestor by the passing of genes from one generation to the next.
Insect
An arthropod with three body sections, three pairs of legs, one pair of a antennae, and usually one or two pairs of wings.
Interdependence
The relationships between or among organisms necessary for their survival.
Invertebrate
An animal without a backbone.
Mammal
An warm blooded vertebrate with a 4 chambered heart, skin covered with fur or hair, and young fed with milk from the mothers body.
Metamorphosis
A process in which an animal's body undergoes dramatic changes in form during it's life cycle.
Multicellular
An organism composed of more than one cell.
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Natural Resource
Something from the natural environment (water, air, trees, fuel) that is used to meet one's needs and wants.
Natural Selection
A process by which some individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Nitrogen Cycle
The circulation of nitrogen brought about mainly by living things.
Non-Native (Invasive) Species
Plants and animals that are not native to an environment, introduced intentionally or accidentally.
Nonrenewable Resource
Resources that can be depleted and are not replaceable, such as coal, oil, and minerals.
Offspring
The product of reproduction by an organism or organisms.
Organ
A structure made up of different types of tissues that work together to do a specific job.
Organism
Groups of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems that work together and form a living thing.
Osmosis
The movement of water through a membrane.
Oxygen/ Carbon Dioxide Cycle
The process by which oxygen and carbon are produced, exchanged, and recycled between living organisms in an ecosystem.
Parasite
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which one (the parasite) benefits to the detriment of the other (host).
Photosynthesis
The process by which green plants use water and carbon dioxide and light from the sun to make food.
Pollution
Human and/or natural contamination of the environment by chemicals or heat energy to the extent that existing habitats are threatened or endangered.
Population
A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time.
Predator
An organism that kills and consumes another organism (prey).
Prey
An organism that is stalked, killed, and eaten by another organism.
Producer
An organism that makes its own food.
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles (genes) that can result from a genetic cross.
Renewable Resource
Resources that can be replenished, such as trees and plants.
River
A natural stream of water with a large volume.
Scavenger
An organism that feeds on dead organic matter.
Sexual Reproduction
Mode of reproduction in which offspring arise from two parents and inherit genes and traits from both parents.
Species
Organisms whose members are alike and successfully reproduce among themselves.
Organ System
Groups of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to perform a specific job.
Tissue
Group of similar cells working together to perform a specific job.
Trait
A characteristic which is passed on to offspring through heredity.
Unicellular
Organisms composed of only one cell.
Vertebrate
An animal that has a backbone.
Water Cycle
The process by which the Earth's water circulates through the environment.
Mitosis
Mitosis, a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells.
Meiosis
division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.
Mitochondria
Organelle in which glucose is converted to energy with water and carbon dioxide as waste
Chloroplast
Organelle in which carbon dioxide and water are converted to sugar and oxygen
Photosynthesis
The process in which plant cells create chemical energy from the solar energy
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