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9 parts of the heart are

right atrioventricular valve, left atrioventricular valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, aortic semilunar valve, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, right atrium

right atrioventricular valve is also called


left atrioventricular valve is also called


SN node stands for

sinoatrial node

pacemaker of the heart-controls the rate of heartbeats

sn node

sn node is located in the wall of the ___

right atrium

sn node sends impulses to the ___, which ensures that both sides of the heart ___ simultaneously

av node; contract

av node stands for

atrioventricular node

white blood cell is also called


___blood cell fights disease


white blood cell is produced in ___ and in ___

bone marrow; lymph nodes

several types of white blood cells:

lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils

red blood cell is also called


red blood cell contains ___ and carries ___

hemoglobin; oxygen

red blood cell lacks a ___ and lives about ___

nucleus; 120 days

red blood cell is formed in ___ and is broken down in ___

bone marrow; liver

red blood cell is a very (small/big) cell


platelet is also called a


"thrombus" means


platelet helps___

clot blood

fragments of megakaryocyte cells from bone marrow


blood is 90% ___


pH of blood is


liquid portion of blood is


liquid portion of blood, plasma, carries ___

nutrients, hormones, clotting factors, wastes, and co2

cellular portion of blood is

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets arise from pluripotent ___ cells in the ___

stem; bone marrow

average male contains ___ of blood

5 liters

complex process triggered by platelets and damaged tissue

blood clotting

damaged tissue and platelets release ___ which triggers ___ which triggers___

thromboplastin + Ca++; prothrombin->thrombin; fibrinogen->fibrin (clot)

hardening of the arteries due to buildup of plaque; associated with a diet rich in saturated (animal) fats


system of vessels and lymph nodes-carries lymph

lymphatic system

lymphatic system returns ___to the ___

interstitial fluid; blood

fluid that surrounds and bathes body cells

interstitial fluid

lymphatic system includes

tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and many lymph nodes

lymph nodes=___-site of proliferation of white blood cells in response to infection

filter blood

carries blood away from the heart


artery walls are (thick/thin); vein walls are (thick/thin)

thick; thin

artery walls are made of thick, elastic ___-under control of ___

smooth muscle; autonomic nervous system

artery expands and contracts to accommodate constantly changing ___

blood pressure

has thin walls and valves to help prevent backflow of blood


carries blood to the heart


veins are located within ___ that propel blood upward and back to heart as the body moves and muscles contract

large skeletal muscles

capillary wall is

only one cell thick

capillary is so small that blood cells travel in

single file

in capillary, blood travels (fast/slow)


in capillary, blood travels slowly for diffusion of

nutrients and wastes

pathway of blood

right atrium->right ventricle->pulmonary artery->lungs->pulmonary veins->left atrium->left ventricle->aorta->arteries->arterioles->capillaries->venules->veins->vena cava (inferior and superior)->right atrium

blood circulates in the

heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, body

when blood circulates in the heart it is called

coronary circulation

when blood circulates in the lungs it is called

pulmonary circulation

when blood circulates in the liver it is called

hepatic circulation

when blood circulates in the kidneys it is called

renal circulation

when blood circulates in the body it is called

systemic circulation

hydra has what type of circulatory system


when an organism has no circulatory system, all cells are

in direct contact with the environment

grasshopper has what type of circulatory system

open circulatory system-lacks capillaries

in grasshopper with open circulatory system, exchange of nutrients occurs in ___ or ___

sinuses or hemocoels

in grasshopper blood (is/is not) clear and does not carry

is; hemoglobin or oxygen

what type of circulatory system does an earthworm have

closed circulatory system-blood is carried in vessles:arteries, veins, capillaries

in earthworm, heart: 5 pairs of __

aortic arches

in earthworm, blood carries __

hemoglobin and oxygen

earthworms have an ___respiratory surface; respiratory gases diffuse through ___ into ___; oxygen is carried by ___dissolved in___

internal; moist skin; capillaries that line the skin; hemoglobin, blood

grasshoppers and other arthropods have an ___ respiratory surface; gas exchange is ___ the animal within ___; air enters body openings called ___ and travels through __ into ___

internal; inside; sinuses (hemocoels); spiracles; trachea; sinuses

gas exchange in animals requires membranes that are

thin, moist, with large surface area

respiratory pigment that carries oxygen in mollusks and arthropod


hemocyanin is ___based. hemoglobin is ___ based

copper; iron

respiratory pigment in almost all vertebrates


hemoglobin picks up ___ in the ___ and drops it off at the ___

oxygen; lungs; body cells

hb =


hb comprises ___

4 iron-based heme units

hb exhibits cooperativity; when one heme unti binds to one oxygen molecule, the entire molecule undergoes a ____ and binds more easily to remaining oxygen molecules

conformational change

change in ____ changes conformation of hb, thus changing its

pH ; affinity for oxygen

a drop in pH ___ the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen


active cells that release co2 from repiration make the blood nearby more ___, thus inducing hb to ___

acidic; release oxygen

this is the mechanism by which hemoglobin releases its ___ to ___

oxygen; body cells; bohr shift

higher pH= ___ affinity for oxygen; it takes ___ oxygen to saturate hb

higher; less

higher altitude animals with less oxygen= evolution with hemoglobin with a ___affinity for oxygen


fetal hb has a ___affiinity for oxygen than maternal hb so it can ___

greater; capture oxygen from the mother's hb

fetal hb does not have the S shape in graph because it does not exhibit

cooperativity; it bonds to each oxygen molecule with the same ease

most co2 is dissolved in the plasma as ___:H2CO3

carbonic acid

the more co2 in the blood the __ the pH


co2 + h2o -> h2co3 <-> hco3- + h+

maintaining blood pH

blood pH is maintained at 7.4 by the

bicarbonate-buffering system

protons can be given up by carbonic acid when the pH of blood becomes too ___ and absorbed by the bicarbonate ion when the pH of the blood becomes too ___. this is called the

basic; acidic; bicarbonate-buffering system

function of nasal cavity

moistens air, filters air, warms air entering the body

human respiratory system includes

trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolus

part of human respiratory system; windpipe, walls are reinforced with cartilage


part of human respiratory system; contians vocal cords


part of human respiratory system; two large tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs


part of human respiratory system; very fine tubes that branch out from the bronchi


part of human respiratory system; microscopic air sacs located at the end of the bronchioles where respiratory gases diffuse; smoking cigarettes destroys these and causes ___

alveolus; emphysema

air is drawn in through the nose and then forced (swallowed) into the lungs; frogs breathe this way

positive pressure breathing

air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm lowers, decreasing the pressure within the lungs; humans breathe this way

negative pressure breathing

a sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities


during inhalation, the diaphragm ___ and ___; pressure within chest cavity ___ and air is drawn into the lungs

contracts; lowers; decreases

during exhalation, the diaphragm ___ and ___; pressure in chest cavity ___ and air is forced out of the lungs

relaxes; moves up; increases

to get the partial pressure of oxygen you ___

multiply percentage of oxygen in the air by total air pressure

since air is 21% oxygen and air pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg, the partial pressure of oxygen at sea lever is

0.21 x 760=160 mmHg

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