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99 terms

Transport and Gas exchange AP Bio Set 14

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9 parts of the heart are
right atrioventricular valve, left atrioventricular valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, aortic semilunar valve, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, right atrium
right atrioventricular valve is also called
tricuspid
left atrioventricular valve is also called
bicuspid
SN node stands for
sinoatrial node
pacemaker of the heart-controls the rate of heartbeats
sn node
sn node is located in the wall of the ___
right atrium
sn node sends impulses to the ___, which ensures that both sides of the heart ___ simultaneously
av node; contract
av node stands for
atrioventricular node
white blood cell is also called
leukocyte
___blood cell fights disease
white
white blood cell is produced in ___ and in ___
bone marrow; lymph nodes
several types of white blood cells:
lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils
red blood cell is also called
erythrocyte
red blood cell contains ___ and carries ___
hemoglobin; oxygen
red blood cell lacks a ___ and lives about ___
nucleus; 120 days
red blood cell is formed in ___ and is broken down in ___
bone marrow; liver
red blood cell is a very (small/big) cell
small
platelet is also called a
thrombocyte
"thrombus" means
clot
platelet helps___
clot blood
fragments of megakaryocyte cells from bone marrow
platelets
blood is 90% ___
water
pH of blood is
7.4
liquid portion of blood is
plasma
liquid portion of blood, plasma, carries ___
nutrients, hormones, clotting factors, wastes, and co2
cellular portion of blood is
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets arise from pluripotent ___ cells in the ___
stem; bone marrow
average male contains ___ of blood
5 liters
complex process triggered by platelets and damaged tissue
blood clotting
damaged tissue and platelets release ___ which triggers ___ which triggers___
thromboplastin + Ca++; prothrombin->thrombin; fibrinogen->fibrin (clot)
hardening of the arteries due to buildup of plaque; associated with a diet rich in saturated (animal) fats
atherosclerosis
system of vessels and lymph nodes-carries lymph
lymphatic system
lymphatic system returns ___to the ___
interstitial fluid; blood
fluid that surrounds and bathes body cells
interstitial fluid
lymphatic system includes
tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and many lymph nodes
lymph nodes=___-site of proliferation of white blood cells in response to infection
filter blood
carries blood away from the heart
artery
artery walls are (thick/thin); vein walls are (thick/thin)
thick; thin
artery walls are made of thick, elastic ___-under control of ___
smooth muscle; autonomic nervous system
artery expands and contracts to accommodate constantly changing ___
blood pressure
has thin walls and valves to help prevent backflow of blood
veins
carries blood to the heart
veins
veins are located within ___ that propel blood upward and back to heart as the body moves and muscles contract
large skeletal muscles
capillary wall is
only one cell thick
capillary is so small that blood cells travel in
single file
in capillary, blood travels (fast/slow)
slow
in capillary, blood travels slowly for diffusion of
nutrients and wastes
pathway of blood
right atrium->right ventricle->pulmonary artery->lungs->pulmonary veins->left atrium->left ventricle->aorta->arteries->arterioles->capillaries->venules->veins->vena cava (inferior and superior)->right atrium
blood circulates in the
heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, body
when blood circulates in the heart it is called
coronary circulation
when blood circulates in the lungs it is called
pulmonary circulation
when blood circulates in the liver it is called
hepatic circulation
when blood circulates in the kidneys it is called
renal circulation
when blood circulates in the body it is called
systemic circulation
hydra has what type of circulatory system
none
when an organism has no circulatory system, all cells are
in direct contact with the environment
grasshopper has what type of circulatory system
open circulatory system-lacks capillaries
in grasshopper with open circulatory system, exchange of nutrients occurs in ___ or ___
sinuses or hemocoels
in grasshopper blood (is/is not) clear and does not carry
is; hemoglobin or oxygen
what type of circulatory system does an earthworm have
closed circulatory system-blood is carried in vessles:arteries, veins, capillaries
in earthworm, heart: 5 pairs of __
aortic arches
in earthworm, blood carries __
hemoglobin and oxygen
earthworms have an ___respiratory surface; respiratory gases diffuse through ___ into ___; oxygen is carried by ___dissolved in___
internal; moist skin; capillaries that line the skin; hemoglobin, blood
grasshoppers and other arthropods have an ___ respiratory surface; gas exchange is ___ the animal within ___; air enters body openings called ___ and travels through __ into ___
internal; inside; sinuses (hemocoels); spiracles; trachea; sinuses
gas exchange in animals requires membranes that are
thin, moist, with large surface area
respiratory pigment that carries oxygen in mollusks and arthropod
hemocyanin
hemocyanin is ___based. hemoglobin is ___ based
copper; iron
respiratory pigment in almost all vertebrates
hemoglobin
hemoglobin picks up ___ in the ___ and drops it off at the ___
oxygen; lungs; body cells
hb =
hemoglobin
hb comprises ___
4 iron-based heme units
hb exhibits cooperativity; when one heme unti binds to one oxygen molecule, the entire molecule undergoes a ____ and binds more easily to remaining oxygen molecules
conformational change
change in ____ changes conformation of hb, thus changing its
pH ; affinity for oxygen
a drop in pH ___ the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
lowers
active cells that release co2 from repiration make the blood nearby more ___, thus inducing hb to ___
acidic; release oxygen
this is the mechanism by which hemoglobin releases its ___ to ___
oxygen; body cells; bohr shift
higher pH= ___ affinity for oxygen; it takes ___ oxygen to saturate hb
higher; less
higher altitude animals with less oxygen= evolution with hemoglobin with a ___affinity for oxygen
greater
fetal hb has a ___affiinity for oxygen than maternal hb so it can ___
greater; capture oxygen from the mother's hb
fetal hb does not have the S shape in graph because it does not exhibit
cooperativity; it bonds to each oxygen molecule with the same ease
most co2 is dissolved in the plasma as ___:H2CO3
carbonic acid
the more co2 in the blood the __ the pH
lower
co2 + h2o -> h2co3 <-> hco3- + h+
maintaining blood pH
blood pH is maintained at 7.4 by the
bicarbonate-buffering system
protons can be given up by carbonic acid when the pH of blood becomes too ___ and absorbed by the bicarbonate ion when the pH of the blood becomes too ___. this is called the
basic; acidic; bicarbonate-buffering system
function of nasal cavity
moistens air, filters air, warms air entering the body
human respiratory system includes
trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolus
part of human respiratory system; windpipe, walls are reinforced with cartilage
trachea
part of human respiratory system; contians vocal cords
larynx
part of human respiratory system; two large tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs
bronchi
part of human respiratory system; very fine tubes that branch out from the bronchi
bronchioles
part of human respiratory system; microscopic air sacs located at the end of the bronchioles where respiratory gases diffuse; smoking cigarettes destroys these and causes ___
alveolus; emphysema
air is drawn in through the nose and then forced (swallowed) into the lungs; frogs breathe this way
positive pressure breathing
air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm lowers, decreasing the pressure within the lungs; humans breathe this way
negative pressure breathing
a sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
diaphragm
during inhalation, the diaphragm ___ and ___; pressure within chest cavity ___ and air is drawn into the lungs
contracts; lowers; decreases
during exhalation, the diaphragm ___ and ___; pressure in chest cavity ___ and air is forced out of the lungs
relaxes; moves up; increases
to get the partial pressure of oxygen you ___
multiply percentage of oxygen in the air by total air pressure
since air is 21% oxygen and air pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg, the partial pressure of oxygen at sea lever is
0.21 x 760=160 mmHg