Biology Final (9th Grade)
Terms in this set (363)
what is the independent variable?
what is the dependent variable?
what are the 4 kingdoms
protists, plantae, fungi, animalia (all have defined nucleus, contain DNA)
what are the 3 domains
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
what are characteristics of a living organism?
respiration, feeding, reproduction, growth, movement, sensitivity, excretion, evolution
name the biological hierarchy?
atoms, molecules, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, individual person, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
what is the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
prokaryotic cells are smaller, simpler, don't have organelles, found in bacteria and archaea, have pili,
eukaryotic cells are larger, more complex, have organelles, specialized compartments for intracellular division of labor, maintained special environments
what are prokaryotic cells associated with?
bacteria and archaea
what do prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells both contain?
organelles, ribosomes, cytoplasm (organelles +cytosol) , cytosol (only liquid), DNA, RNA, fluid mosaic ( many components that are freely moving)
what does the mitochondria do?
makes energy from food molecules, releasing Co2 and H2O in cellular respiration
what do the chloroplasts do?
in plant cells, captures sunlight, creates sugar and oxygen from photosynthesis (sugar and oxygen used in the mitochondria)
what does the cell wall do?
captures needed molecules for the cell, removes waste from the cell, communicates with other cells, anchors the cell in place
what does the nucleus do?
contains DNA, needed for growing, building, reproducing, ribosomes and RNA made in it, exits through pores
what do the ribosomes do?
makes protein for both inside and outside the cell
what do the rough endoplasmic reticulum do?
packages proteins made from the ribosomes attached to it
what does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?
produce lipids for other cell compartments, break down toxic organic compounds in the cell
what do plant vacuoles do?
break down macronutrients
what do lysosomes do?
break down macromolecules, highly acidic inside (5 PH)
where do all cells come from?
what does the golgi apparatus do?
directs proteins (rough ER) and lipids (smooth ER) produced by the ER to their final destination, transported by vesicles
what does the cytoskeleton do?
3 different types, supports movement of organelles, strengthen cells membrane, enables cell movement
what do vesicles do?
move proteins and lipids from the ER's to the golgi apparatus
What is matter
something that takes up space
what is a atom
building blocks of matter, which make up the universe
What is a Biomolecules
molecules found in living cells, generally contain carbon, building blocks of cells
what is a Proton
subatomic particle in all atoms, has positive charge
what is a Electron
a subatomic particle in all atoms, has negative charge
what is a Neutron
a subatomic particle in all atoms, has no charge, neutral charge
what is a Isotope
element that differ in atomic mass, same number of protons and electrons, different number of neutrons
What are the six most abundant elements in living organisms?
what are the charges and location in the atom of neutrons, protons and electrons
Proton: Positive (in nucleus)
Neutron: Neutral charge (in nucleus)
Electron: Negative (in shells)
What is the atomic mass
number of total protons and neutrons in atom
what is the atomic number
# of protons
What is a ion
atom that has a charge (positive or negative)
what is Covalent bonding
strongest bond, share an electron to fill the shells
what is Ionic bond
nonmetal losing a electron, metal gaining one, opposite electrical charges attract
what is a Compound
something that is made up of more than one separate elements
What is a Isotope
same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons
what is a Polar molecule
when one side is slightly positive and one side is slightly negative (water is one)
What is a Polar covalent bond
bonding where electrons shared unequally between 2 atoms. Partial charge on atoms
what is a Hydrogen bond
A weak attractions is the weak attractions between a hydrogen atom with a slightly positive charge and a neighboring atom with a slight negative charge
What is Hydrophobic
isn't attracted to water
what is Hydrophilic
attracted to water, able to be broken down because they have a (positive and negative) charge on ions
What is Insulation
can maintain temperature of water no matter the air temperature
What is Evaporating cooling
as water evaporates it cools the surface from where it is from
What is Cohesion
directly related to hydrogen bonding, attractive forces between water molecules
What is Surface tension
directly related to cohesion, water is strong enough to withstand the weight of an object
How does carbon contain biomolecules
DNA is a biomolecule (nucleic acid)
Plants take in carbon dioxide from the factories/ air and make it into celluose, animals and people eat plants
Which form of water has the most hydrogen bonds?
How is a polar covalent bond is similar and different to ionic and covalent bonds
Similar: covalent share an atom, ionic has attraction between positive and negative ends
Different: partial charges on polar covalent, bonded electrons shared unequally between the 2 atoms
what is the equation for the summary of photosynthesis
(in chloroplasts) CO2+H2O with light energy goes to Sugar+O2
What is the equation for cellular respiration
(in mitochondria, eukaryotic cells)) Sugar+O2 goes to (discarding ATP) CO2+H2O
images: hydrogen bonds in water as a liquid, solid and gas
images: the carbon cycle
images: the nitrogen cycle
images: the oxygen cycle
images: the phosphorus cycle
What is a organic molecules
Biomolecules that include at least one carbon-hydrogen bond
What is a macromolecules
Small organic molecules can link up via covalent bonds to create larger assemblies of atoms (Starch and proteins are examples of macromolecules)
What is a monomers
smaller unit of macromolecule
What is a polymers
larger unit of macromolecules
What are the functional groups
cluster of covalently bonded atoms that have the same distinctive chemical properties no matter what molecule they are found in
What are the similarity and difference between organic molecules and biomolecules.
organic: Organic molecules are usually composed of carbon atoms in rings or long chains, to which are attached other atoms of such elements as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
biomolecule: an organic molecule and especially a macromolecule (as a protein or nucleic acid) in living organisms
Why is being able to form polymers from monomers is important for living organisms
essential for every structure and chemical process in life
What are the two basic ways functional groups are important components of monomers and polymers
amino group and carboxyl group
responsible for bonding monomers
effect function of biomolecule
impact differences on varieties
What is a carbohydrate
molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.
WHat is a monosaccharide
simplest sugar molecules
What is a disaccharide,
Two covalently joined monosaccharides
WHat is a polysaccharide,
Large polymers built by linking many monosaccharides
WHat is a dehydration reaction (synthesis)
losing of water molecule in covalent bonding
WHat is a hydrolytic reaction (hydrolysis)
addition of water to covalent bond
WHat is a glucose
produces energy for living organisms
WHat is a fructose
same formula as glucose but connected in different pattern (monosaccharide of carbs)
WHat is a sucrose
a disaccharide of glucose and fructose covalently bonded
WHat is a cellulose
polysaccharide that is bundled into strong parallel fibers that help support the plant body
WHat is a starch
polysaccharide that serves as an energy storage molecule inside plant cells
WHat is a glycogen
main storage polysaccharide in animal cells
which carbohydrate molecules are monosaccharaides (monomers) and the names of the polymers (polysaccharides) formed
Monsaccharide: glucose, fructose
Polysaccharide: glycogen, starch, cellulose
Know where the three polysaccharides are found in living organisms and what important roles they play in the cell.
Cellulose: cell wall (plant cells only
Starch: energy storage
Know what type of reaction links monosaccharaides into polysaccharides and how they are broken down
WHat is a Protein
a biomolecule that is categorized by storing things, a catalysts, transport, and structure ourselves
WHat is a amino acid
monomer of protein
WHat is a polypeptide
polymer of protein
WHat is a peptide bond
covalent bond that links amino acids to become polymers
WHat is a enzyme
Part of catalysts in living organisms which help speed up chemical reactions
what are the structures of protein that makes each individual amino acid unique and how many there are.
Know which two functional groups all amino acids have in common.
a carboxyl group and an amino group
If given an illustration know which structures are the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary for a protein.
what does protein denaturation mean
The destruction of a protein's three-dimensional structure, resulting in loss of protein activity
hydrophobic biomolecules built from chains or rings of hydrocarbon, which, as you might guess, consists of carbon and hydrogen atoms
"monomer" of lipids
saturated fatty acids
solid at room temperature, single covalent bonds in links
unsaturated fatty acids
Liquid at room temperature, double covalent bond that causes bend in links
A lipid in which all three hydroxyl groups in glycerol are bonded to a fatty acid. Animals store most of their surplus energy in the form of triglycerides.
A lipid consisting of two fatty acids, a glycerol, and a phosphate as part of the hydrophilic head group. Phospholipids are the main component in all biological membranes.
the outermost boundary of a cell
phospholipids exposed to water spontaneously arrange themselves in a double-layer sheet
Tails in, heads out
Also called steroid. Any of a class of lipids whose fundamental structure consists of four hydrocarbon rings fused to each other.
the "starting" molecule for the manufacture of many other sterols (vitamin D for example)
signaling molecules that are active in very small amounts and control a great variety of processes in plants and animals
What is the two main differences between carbohydrates/nucleic acids and lipids.
No monomers and polymers
lipids aren't soluble in water
What is the difference between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
one has double covalent bond (bend in link) other doesn't
What are the two main structures a phospholipid and how they are different.
the hydrophilic head and the fatty acid tail
one is hydrophobic, one is hydrophilic
how is the structure of the phospholipid bilayer creates a semi-permeable membrane.
hydrophilic on outside, hydrophobic on inside.
Cell membranes control the exchange of ions and molecules between the cells and their external environment, and also between various compartments within a cell
What are the important roles sterols play in the cell or body of an organism.
they make up vitamin D, testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol (hormones)
biomolecule made up of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar
any of the 5 nitogenous rich compounds found in nucleotides. (uracil, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)
A functional group consisting of a phosphate atom and four oxygen atoms.
polymer of nucleotide (2 kinds: DNA and RNA)
double-stranded molecule consisting of two spirally wound polymers of nucleotides that store genetic information, including the information needed to synthesize proteins.
single-stranded polymer of nucleotides that is necessary for the synthesis of proteins in living organisms
molecule that is commonly used by cells to store energy and to transfer energy from one chemical reaction to another
Name the bases we studied
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T) DNA ONLY , Cytosine (C), Uracil (U) RNA ONLY
what are the important sugars are in most nucleic acids
What type of bond binds the nucleotides of DNA and RNA
the main roles of both DNA and RNA
DNA: stores genetic information
RNA: makes proteins in organisms
the main role of ATP
ATP is the universal energy carrier for living organisms
the main differences between nucleotides of DNA/RNA vs. ATP
ATP has 3 phosphate groups in it while DNA/RNA has only 2
Definition: transport proteins
A protein that provides a pathway by which materials can enter or leave cells.
The ability to control which materials can pass through a membrane.
Passive transport is the spontaneous movement of a substance and can take place without an input of energy.
Active transport is the movement of a substance in response to an input of energy.
Against the gradient
is the passive transport of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
The difference in concentration that exists between two regions if a substance is more abundant in one region than in the other region.
Definition: simple diffusion
The passive movement of a substance across a membrane without the assistance of any membrane components.
what does selective permeability mean and how does it function benefit living organisms.
Selcecively permeable means the membrane takes in and releases ions and molecules selectively. It controls what goes in and out to help the cell function and not store too much stuff in it
compare and contrast passive transport and active transport especially in terms of their relationship to concentration gradient
active uses energy
active goes against the gradient
passive goes with the gradient
explain simple diffusion and the types of molecules involved in biological transport.
simple diffusion is is the passive movement of a substance across a membrane without the assistance of any membrane components.
types of molecules involved: ions, small molecules, oxygen, co2, hydrophobic molecules
refers to the diffusion of water molecules (from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration) across a selectively permeable membrane.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances.
has a lower solute concentration than the cytosol of a cell, which causes water to flow into the cell and make it swell.
Definition: hypertonic solution
has a higher solute concentration than the cytosol of a cell, which causes water to flow out of the cell and make it shrink.
has an equal concentration of solute inside and outside the cell.
The process of maintaining an internal water and salt balance that supports biological processes.
compare and contrast simple diffusion to osmosis
simple diffusion is the passage of small molecules through the membrane without the help of any transport proteins
Osmosis is the movement of water from higher concentration 2 lower concentration region. it involves partially parmeable membrane.
OSMOSIS IS ONLY WATER
BOTH MOVE ACROSS SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
which way water would move in these different conditions (isotonic vs hypertonic vs hypotonic)
Hypertonic: out of cell
hypotonic: into cell
diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
is the passive transmembrane movement of a substance with the assistance of membrane transport proteins:
carry out facilitated diffusion:
They move substances down a concentration gradient
without an energy imput,
selecting cargo (mainly ions) on the basis of size, shape, and chemical characteristics.
transport specific molecules across the plasma membrane based on the shape of the molecule, and are of two types:
Passive carrier proteins
Active carrier proteins
Definition: active carrier proteins
A cell membrane protein that, using energy from an energy-rich molecule such as ATP, changes its shape to transport an ion or a molecule across the membrane against a concentration gradient
Definition: passive carrier protein
assist in the diffusion of molecules and ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. FIT TO MOLECULE SIZE, CONTROL AMOUNT
explain why ions, such as Na+ cannot move across a phospholipid bilayer unassisted (passive and active transport)
sodium has electrical charge (hydrophilic) and are therefore repelled by the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. it needs help from transport proteins
compare channel proteins, carrier proteins and active carrier proteins
channel: selects cargo by having specific "shape" to it
carrier: lets whatever molecules in and out of the cell
active carrier: uses ATP, goes against gradient
substances to be exported from a cell are packaged into transport vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and expel the contents into their surrounding.
brings substances into the cell by wrapping them in a section of the plasma membrane that eventually breaks free inside the cell.
is a nonspecific type of endocytosis that brings in all the material in an immediate area.
can transport massive amount of material
A protein in the plasma membrane or cytoplasm of a target cell that binds signaling molecules, allowing those molecules to indirectly affect processes inside the cell.
uses specialized receptor proteins to determine which substances are incorporated into the vesicle created by the plasma membrane.
LDL RECEPTOR RECONIZES ANOTHER PROTEIN, LATCHES ON, FITS TOGETHER
WHEN RECEPTOR PROTEIN ENTERS CELL, GETS IMMEDIATELY DESTROYED
is used to ingest large particles, such as a bacteria or viruses; white blood cells use phagocytosis to engulf and destroy foreign substances.
TAKES IN LARGER PARTICLES
compare exocytosis and endocytosis
exocytosis: exiting the cell,
endocytosis: going into the cell
exocytosis in vesicle
endocytosis incased in plasma membrane
describe and compare pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis
pinocytosis: can transport massive amount of material
phagocytosis: take in larger particles
receptor-mediated endocytosis: LDL RECEPTOR RECONIZES ANOTHER PROTEIN, LATCHES ON, FITS TOGETHER
WHEN RECEPTOR PROTEIN ENTERS CELL, GETS IMMEDIATELY DESTROYED
A structure that anchors a cell, connects it with a neighbor, or creates communication passageways between two cells.
form patches of proteins that extend through the plasma membrane and link cells that typically undergo heavy structural stress.
are formed by belts of proteins that create leak-proof sheets of cells, which can be found in the skin and lining of the body cavities.
protein-lined tunnels that span the intercellular space between adjacent cells.
MOVE THINGS QUICKLY FROM CELL TO CELL
LIKE CHANNEL PROTEINS
are tunnels through the cell wall that connect the plasma membranes and cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
They enable RAPID COMMUNICATION between plant cells, in a manner similar to gap junctions.
describe and compare anchoring junctions, tight junctions, gap junctions and plasmodesmata
anchoring: form patches, link cells that undergo structural stress
tight:a specialized connection of two adjacent animal cell membranes such that the space usually lying between them is absent.
gap: (like channel protein), large opening, can quickly move things from cell to cell
plasmodesmata: tunnel through walls, plant cell
the molecules that are responsible for transmitting information between cells
The size, shape, and function of different types of signaling molecules can vary
A cell that receives and responds to a signaling molecule.
is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior. Signals received by cells must be transmitted effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate response. This step is initiated by cell-surface receptors.
A signaling molecule released in very small amounts into the circulatory system of an animal, or into a variety of tissues in a plant, that affects the functioning of target tissues.
describe a signal transduction pathway and the role of both hydrophobic (with intracellular receptors) and hydrophilic hormones (with cell surface receptor)
A series of cellular events that relay receipt of a signal from protein receptors on the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm.
Exocytosis and endocytosis chart
Endocytosis: Pinocytosis, Receptor-mediated endocytosis, Phagocytosis
Exocytosis: no variations
Cell junction chart
Main cell junctions in animal cells:
Plasmodesmata: most like gap junction
signal transduction pathway
the energy stored in any system as a consequence of its position
the potential energy stored in atoms because of their position in relation to other atoms
the energy a system possesses as a consequence of its state of motion
Heat energy is that portion of the total energy of a particle that can flow.
distinguish between the different forms of energy and be able to identify examples of the different types
kinetic: energy in motion, birds
potential energy: stored energy, flowers
heat energy: total energy in a molecule, fires
chemical energy: energy stored in the bonds between atoms and ions
all the chemical reactions within a living cell that capture, store, or use energy.
catabolism (catabolic reaction)
the linked chain of energy-producing reactions that release chemical energy in the process of breaking down complex biomolecules
reactions that uses energy, create biomolecules from smaller organic compounds
the loss of a molecule, atom, or ion
the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom, or ion
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
he oxygen-dependent breakdown of food molecules to release a form of energy that is usable within a cell, making CO2 and H2O as by-products
he metabolic pathway that transforms light energy from the sun into the chemical energy of food molecules (sugars)
A substance that undergoes a chemical reaction.
A substance that is formed by a chemical reaction.
definition of metabolism and be able to identify the three main components
all the chemical reactions within a living cell that capture, store, or use energy.
compare catabolism and anabolism
catabolism: break down bio molecules, release energy
anabolism: build up of bio molecules, use energy
compare oxidation and reduction
oxidation: the loss of a molecule, atom, or ion
reduction: the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom, or ion
identify the formulas for respiration and photosynthesis and be able to identify them by both description and formula
photosynthesis: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
respiration C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
A macromolecule, usually a protein, that acts as a catalyst, speeding the progress of chemical reactions. Nearly all chemical reactions in living organisms are catalyzed by enzymes.
A substance that speeds up a specific chemical reaction without being permanently altered in the process.
ex: enzymes biological catalysts
(reactants) bind to the active site of an enzyme based on the site's size, shape, and chemistry
The specific region on the surface of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind
induced fit model
A model of substrate-enzyme interaction stating that as a substrate enters the active site, the parts of the enzyme shift about slightly to allow the active site to mold itself around the substrate.
The minimum energy input that enables reactants to overcome the energy barrier, allowing a chemical reaction to proceed at a noticeable rate.
identify the definitions of enzyme and catalyst
enzyme: A macromolecule, usually a protein, that acts as a catalyst, speeding the progress of chemical reactions. Nearly all chemical reactions in living organisms are catalyzed by enzymes.
catalyst: A substance that speeds up a specific chemical reaction without being permanently altered in the process. Enzymes, which are usually proteins, are an example of biological catalysts.
identify the properties of enzymes (table 5.1 page 112) when given a list of choices
are usually proteins.
increase the rate of chemical reactions, often by a millionfold or more.
generally act on one or a few specific substrates
remain unchanged by the reaction.
are reused over and over, catalyzing the transformation of many substrate molecules.
are sensitive to temperature, pH, and salt concentration.
tightly regulated in a cell or body
may need assistance by special cofactors (ions or molecules)
inhibited by specific ions or molecules
What are the components of the induced fit model
can adjust slightly
depends on the three-dimensional shapes of both the substrate and the enzyme molecules
what is activation energy is and its relationship to a catalyst
definition: The minimum energy input that enables reactants to overcome the energy barrier, allowing a chemical reaction to proceed at a noticeable rate.
relationship:catalysts lower the amount of activation energy needed
what is a metabolic pathway and how does it relates to the production or breakdown of biomolecules
A series of enzyme-controlled chemical reactions in a cell in which the product of one reaction becomes the substrate for the next.
relates: the production of key biological molecules
multi step reactions
The production of genetically identical offspring without the exchange of genetic material with another individual.
The combining of genes from two individuals to give rise to a new individual, known as the offspring.
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used in bacteria
haploid cells made from meiosis
4 are created in meiosis, final cell
fuses with another sex cell during fertilization.
ontains a diploid set of genetic information (2n), whereas a gamete contains a haploid set (n).
binary fission vs mitosis
binary: don't have nucleus, DNA synthesizes (replicated), fission is formed before it breaks apart
mitosis: eukaryotic cells reproduce
much more complicated, more steps involved
The fusion of two different haploid gametes (egg cell and sperm) to produce a diploid zygote
The diploid (2n) cell formed by the fusion of two haploid (n) gametes
The early stage of development in plants and animals, extending from the zygote
the life cycle of a eukaryotic cell from its origin to its division by mitosis or meiosis.
the division of a cell into two daughter cells with the same genetic material.
Nuclear division, involving separation of chromosomes (mitosis)
Cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis), creating two daughter cells
Takes in nutrients and manufactures proteins and other substances
Conducts its specialized functions
Prepares to divide, including replicating the genetic material
cell grows and is ready for DNA to replicate
prep for mitosis
makes sure conditions are suitable
where are the checkpoints and what happens in them?
metaphase-anaphase: all chromosomes attached to mitotic spindles
G2-metaphase: is all DNA been replicated, DNA repaired
after G0 phase: are the conditions favorable, required signals obtained
resting stage, dormant
when does the cell cycle occur
after G2 phase
describe the various types of cell division and the outcomes of these processes.
binary fission: asexual cell, prokaryotic organisms
mitosis:: used for growth and repair and produces diploid cells
meiosis: It produces two diploid cells that are identical to each and parent cells
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Each DNA double helix is packaged with special proteins to form long strands of chromatin.
DNA is replicated during S phase, resulting in two identical double helices known as sister chromatids.
The region of the chromosome
held together at a region called the centromere.
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
A pair of chromosomes having the same gene sequences, each derived from one parent.
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
The X and Y chromosomes
explain the order of organization of DNA
DNA→ Chromatin→ Chromosomes→ Sister chromatids (look on cover of mitosis slide)
explain the differences between homologous pairs and sister chromatids
how does it relate to meiosis
homologous pair: two non-identical copies of a chromosome, one from each parent.
sister chromatids: Sister chromatids are identical
meiosis: all separated in meiosis
an organelle near the nucleus of a cell that contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division.
Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
An football-shaped array of microtubules that guides the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
chromosomes become aligned at the equator of the cell.
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and new nuclear envelopes begin to form around each set of chromosomes.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
describe the consecutive phases of Mitosis
how the stages of the cell cycle (interphase) sets up the cell for mitosis.
interphase (G0,G1,S,G2) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis
interphase replicates DNA
difference between plant telophase/cytokinesis and that of animal cells. (mitosis)
in animal: don't have cell wall
in plant: cell wall forms
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
The symbol n is traditionally used to indicate the number of chromosomes in a haploid cell
a cell or organism that has two complete sets (2n) of homologous chromosomes.
2n chromosomes—that is, two of every kind of chromosome.
zygotes have 2n chromosones
relating to or characteristic of a father
relating to or characteristic of a mother
Meiosis I (and the stages)
interphase, prophase 1, metaphase, anaphase, telephone
sorts each member of a homologous pair into two different daughter cells, reducing the chromosome sets from 2n to n.
produces haploid daughter cells, each with half of the chromosome set found in the diploid parent cell.
Meiosis 2 (and the stages)
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephone
separates sister chromatids in each cell produced by meiosis I into two different daughter cells.
Meiosis II is essentially mitosis, but in a haploid cell.
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
crossing over and independent assortment
the random distribution of the different homologous chromosome pairs into daughter cells during meiosis I.
explain the main differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.
meiosis: 4 daughter cells
half amount of genetic material
has 2x amount of steps
creates sex cells
mitosis: 2 daughter cells
used for grown
both diploid parent cells
explain how crossing over and independent assortment contribute to genetic variation in gametes.
meiosis 1, trade off pieces
explain the main differences between meiosis I and meiosis II.
meiosis 1: sorts each member of a homologous pair into two different daughter cells, reducing the chromosome sets from 2n to n.
results in 2 cells
meiosis 2: separates sister chromatids in each cell produced by meiosis I into two different daughter cells.
results in 4 cells
what does 2n mean
2 is made out of maternal and paternal
n equals number of chromosomes
how many checkpoints are there?
the study of inherited characteristics (genetic traits) and the genes that affect those traits.
Any inherited characteristic of an organism that can be observed or detected
examples include body size, coat color, length of fur, and aggressive behavior.
The particular version of a genetic trait that is displayed by a given individual.
the allelic makeup of that individual with respect to the specified genetic trait(s):
The genotype completely or partially controls an individual's phenotype.
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar structures and gene values
A chromosome inherited from the father.
A chromosome inherited from the mother.
An individual that carries two copies of the same allele (for example, an AA or an aa individual).
An individual that carries one copy of each of two different alleles (for example, an Aa individual).
The allele that exerts a controlling influence on the phenotype in a heterozygote is said to be dominant
An allele that has no effect on the phenotype when paired with a dominant allele in a heterozygote is said to be recessive
A change in the sequence of an organism's DNA
mutations are the original source of all genetic variation.
The parent generation in a breeding trial involving a series of genetic crosses.
The first generation of offspring in a breeding trial involving a series of genetic crosses
The second generation of offspring in a breeding trial involving a series of genetic crosses.
difference between genotype and phenotype
genotype is the set of alleles for a gene an organism has. Phenotype is the physical appearance of the trait; or the trait expressed.
What is the progressive order of genetic information in a cell
Nucleic acids< DNA < Gene < Chromosome < Homologous pairs < Genome (Karyotype)
An offspring that results when two different species, or two different varieties or genotypic lines, are mated.
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
What are the 5 main principles of Mendel's concepts outlined in 9.2
A. Alternative versions of genes (alleles) cause variation in inheritance.
B. Offspring inherit one copy of a gene from each parent.
C. An allele is dominant if it has control over the phenotype of an individual possessing two alleles for that gene.
D. The two copies (alleles) of a gene segregate during meiosis and end up in different gametes (gametes cells).
E. Gametes fuse without regard to the alleles they carry.
the law of segregation
the two copies of a gene separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes.
law of independent assortment
when gametes form, the two copies of any given allele are sorted independently of any two alleles of other genes.
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
spotting on a cow
A type of genetic control in which a single gene influences a variety of different traits.
the interaction of genes that are not alleles, in particular the suppression of the effect of one such gene by another.
trait controlled by two or more genes
Phenotype variation in which quantitative traits range from one phenotypic extreme to another in an overlapping or continuous fashion.
what are the different kinds of blood types
phenotypic ratio vs genotypic ratio
Tt x tt
tall x short
50% (2/4) Tt
50% (2/4) tt
chromosome theory of inheritance
A theory, supported by much experimental evidence, stating that genes are located on chromosomes.
explain the chromosome theory of inheritance
A theory, supported by much experimental evidence, stating that genes are located on chromosomes.
sex chromosomes vs autosomes
Sex Chromosomes= determine an individual's sex vs Autosomes= Chromosomes that aren't sex chromosomes
determine the number of possible allele combinations that would be produced from meiosis
2n=2^x (x=number of chromosomes/2)
different genes that are located close to one another on the same chromosome are inherited together
Location of a gene on a chromosome
Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual.
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
the sex determining region of the Y chromosome in males. Encodes the testis-determining factor, which turns the primordial gonads into the testes
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Source of genetic variation caused by the unlimited number of possible sperm & egg combinations.
an experimental genetic cross in which one parent is known to be a recessive homozygote
a particular species chosen for research into broad biological principles because it is representative of a larger group and usually easy to grow in a lab
explain why linked genes produce results from crossings that are different than ones independent assortment would predict
crossing over can occur, causing different pieces of a chromosome to change which chromosome they are on
location of genes can cause the genetically linked genes to separate when crossing over occurs.
a cross between two different lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits.
look at the phenotypic numbers from a dihybrid cross and determine if the two genes are linked or not
If the ratio is all the same, then they are genetically linked
if the ratios are different (such as 9:3:3:1, then they are not linked)
explain how the proximity of two genes on a single chromosome determines how strong their genetic linkage is
The closeness of genes causes them to stay together even when crossing over occurs, resulting in the characteristic to stay the same
what characteristics make a good 'model organism'
have a very short generation time
can breed in large numbers
have similar genes or similar-sized genomes to humans
A mutation that occurs in a cell other than a sex cell and hence is not passed down to offspring
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
observe a pedigree and determine if a disorder is most likely sex linked vs. autosomal recessive vs. autosomal dominant
dominant: both sexes transmit it to offsprings, Affected offspring must have an affected parent
recessive: skips generations
A person who carries a defective gene that, when combined in reproduction with a similar one from another person, may yield a genetic defect. A carrier does not exhibit symptoms of the disease.
explain why dominant autosomal disorders that produce serious negative effects are less common than serious recessive autosomal disorders
Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce.
sex linked traits
traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes
genes located on X-chromosome
Punnett squares for sex-linked conditions
no allele on y chromosome
explain why x-linked traits (color blindness for example) are more common in males
X-linked genes are genes which are present on the X chromosome, but which are not present on the Y chromosome. Because of this, females have two of each X-linked gene, but males only have one.
A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.
(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed
The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
3 copies of a chromosome
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
when mutations produce an extra part or copies of chromosomes
Meiosis II picture
Meiosis I picture
what happens during Meiosis I
1. Prior to meiosis each chromosome is replicated. 2. Two new cells are produced which enter Meiosis II 3. Crossing over occurs.
what happens during interphase I
Cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes
what happens during Prophase I
Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosomes to form a tetrad
Nuclear membrane and nucleous disappears
what happens during Metaphase I
Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes and align the homologous pairs at the equator of the cell
what happens during Anaphase I
The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell
what happens during Telophase I and Cytokinesis
Nuclear membrane and nucleous forms. The cell seperates into two cells once the cytoplasm divides.
what happens during Meiosis II
1. No replication. 2. Each entering cell has 2 chromatids. 3. Four haploid daughter cells produced.
what happens during Prophase II
Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
what happens during Metaphase II
The chromosomes (sister chromatids) line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis along the equator.
what happens during Anaphase II
The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Alleles segregate.
what happens during Telophase II and Cytokinesis
Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.
Preserved remains of once-living organisms
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
Comparable to; like
Organ that are reduced because they are no useful function in an organism
the geographic distribution of species
Study of the similarities and differences in the embryos of different species.
chemistry of living things
Any technique used to analyze genes and DNA
ex: dna fongerprinting
Darwin's voyage and the development of the theory: diversity
Darwin's voyage and the development of the theory: fitness
survival of the fittest
an evolutionary process that adapts a
population to its environment
Darwin's finches are a group of about fifteen species of passerine birds. They are well known for their remarkable diversity in beak form and function.
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population.
rate of change.
describes how a quantity is changing over time
sympatric and allopatric speciation
barriers that prevent reproduction and lead to/maintain speciation