Research Methods - Content Analysis

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What is content analysis?
Turning qualitative data in to quantitative data.
Why does content analysis need to take place?
When psychologists do open questions full of words, it needs turning in to quantitative data so it is able to be made in to a graph, etc.
What kind of qualitative date can be changed?
Facebook posts/tweets/magazines/newspapers.
What is the first step of content analysis?
Come up with a research question of hypothesis. E.g. How are young people portrayed in the media?
How do you do step two and operationalise the variables?
It depends on the unit of analysis, for example, you either look at each article in a magazine, each page, each sentence, each word. You decide what level of detail you are going in to.
How does the third step make the data quantitative?
For example, you would add up the list of adjectives describing a woman's body in the magazine and then add up adjectives describing other parts of her, such as personality. BECOMES QUANTITATIVE.
What is the sample aspect of content analysis?
All raters would be given the same magazine edition and compare physical references and other references about a woman, for example.
What is inter rater reliability and how is it used in content analysis?
All the raters come together and compare the results to ensure inter rater reliability. If the reliability is good, they can go off and do their own research but if it is not, the raters have to keep going and comparing their results until it is good enough to do their own research.
What does inter rater reliability ensure?
It ensures RELIABILITY.
How can content analysis not lose all of the qualitative aspect from the data?
Once the data has been turned in to averages and percentages etc, you do not want to lose all of the interesting qualitative data and so, you can add quotes to illustrate the quantitative data.
What are the strengths of content analysis?
You can get a longitudinal aspect very quickly by looking at archives of years of tweets etc and it is very replicable as people can use the same data and check the results, ensuring no bias.
What are the weaknesses of content analysis?
There are issues of investigator bias if big research teams are trying to prove a point and they may not have been given consent from tweets etc that people have posted which leads to ethical issues.