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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Industrial Revolution Test
Terms in this set (58)
The industrial revolution
a time when power-driven machinery and factories became widespread
Where did the industrial revolution begin?
They had all of the factors of production; land, labor, and capital; and they had political stability
Why did the industrial revolution begin in England?
Resources such as coal, iron ore, rivers, and agricultural revolution
Large population of workers
Money for investment in businesses and to support growth of factories (expanding economy)
The enclosure movement, Agricultural Revolution, and unemployed farmers and farm workers needed new jobs
How did agriculture change in England prior to the industrial revolution?
Seed drill, crop rotation, and selective breeding
What were some inventions that improved agriculture?
How textiles were produced before the industrial revolution
Textiles were produced in peoples homes which was called the cottage system or the putting out system
Wealthy landowners began buying up small farms
Wealthy landowners experimented with new farming techniques and machinery which resulted in more food being produced by fewer farmers
Flying shuttle, water frame, spinning mule, and power loom
What inventions changed the textile industry?
John Kay's invention allowed the shuttle, containing the thread, to be shot backwards and forwards across a much wider bed. It also allowed the thread to be woven at a faster rate, thus enabling the process of weaving to become faster
In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented this that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame
Water frame/ spinning frame
Richard Arkwright patented this that could produce stronger threads for yarns. The first models were powered by waterwheels
A steam-powered, mechanically operated version of a regular loom, an invention that combined threads to make cloth.
Steam engine, canals, McAdam roads, turnpikes, and railroads
What were some advances in transportation during the industrial era?
Economic growth, cheap transportation for goods, created jobs, increased England's agricultural and fishing industry, and made travel easier
How did railroads change life in Britain?
Harsh working conditions in factories, 14 hr days, 6 days a week, monotonous work, no job security, men competed with women and children for jobs, and low wages
How did work change for the average family during the industrial revolution?
Poor living conditions, low life expectancy, overcrowding, poor sanitation, frequent cholera epidemics, polluted drinking water from the Thames River, and low life expectancy
What were living conditions like in the cities during the early industrial era?
The invention of the cotton gin increased the demand for slaves
How did the industrial revolution affect slavery?
Changes in upper class, new class-the middle class (upper middle class and lower middle class), and poor workers
How did the Industrial Revolution produce changes in culture and society?
Skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Upper Middle Class
Government employees (doctors, lawyers, managers)
Lower Middle Class
Had a comfortable standard of living (factory overseers, skilled workers)
Saw little improvement in living and working conditions from 1800-1850
Campaigns to end child labor, efforts to increase and improve education, efforts to give workers more rights through labor unions and collective bargaining, increase demand for women's rights, prison reform, and abolition of slavery
What were some of the social reforms that took place during the industrial era?
Steam engine, cotton gin, and Bessemer Process
What were some technological advances that occurred during the industrial revolution and who invented them?
Who created the steam engine?
Who created the cotton gin?
Who created the Bessemer Process? (new process for making steel)
A vaccine for small pox and the discovery of bacteria
What were some advances in medicine that occurred during the industrial revolution?
Capitalism, Laissez faire, free market, free trade, and Adam Smith "Wealth of Nations"
What economic theories supported the industrial revolution?
Socialism, marxism, communism
What were some theories opposed to capitalism?
Economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the gov't and operate for the welfare of all
Political and economic theories based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; radical type of socialism; inspired revolutions in Russia, China, Vietnam, and Cuba
Complete socialism, all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses would be owned by the people, and all goods and services would be shared equally
What were some of the effects of imperialism?
Gave more power and wealth to already wealthy and industrialized nations and increased poverty in less developed nations and widened the gap between developed and undeveloped countries (global inequality)
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
The system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
The development of industries for the machine production of goods
Factors of production
Land, labor, and capital
A large building in which machinery is used to manufacture goods
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
The growth of cities and the migration of people into them
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Certain rights of ownership to a business entrepreneurs sold to get money
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
The idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses
A professor at the University of Glasgow who defended the idea of a free economy in his 1776 book "The Wealth of Nations"
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
An economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
A German journalist who introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism
An economic system in which all means of production—land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses—are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
Negotiations between workers and their employers
To refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demands
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