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CP Chemistry Chapter 16 THEORY
Terms in this set (22)
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time, they are determined by measuring the concentrations of reactants/products as the chemical reaction proceeds, they can't be calculated from balanced chemical equations.
states that atoms, ions, and molecules must collide in order to react, most collisions fail to produce products because the orientations in which the molecules collide are unfavorable, or there is not sufficient energy to form an activated complex.
activated complex (transition state)
a temporary, unstable arrangement of atoms formed when collision theory is completed, it is in which old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming, as a result it may form products or break apart to form reactants.
activation energy (Ea)
the minimum amount of energy that reacting particles must have to form the activated complex and lead to a reaction, a high Ea means few collisions have the required energy to produce activated complex (the reaction rate is slow) a low Ea means that more collisions have sufficient energy to react and the reaction rate is high; high hill (high energy), slow reaction, low hill (low energy) fast reaction.
molecules collide with enough energy to overcome to activation energy barrier, they form an activated complex and release energy, forming products at a lower energy level (hill gets lower); reactant energy > product energy.
the reactant molecules are at a lower energy than the products, and the reactants must absorb enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier and form high energy products; reactant energy < product energy.
spontaneity (delta G)
does not affect/tell anything about speed of reaction.
increasing reaction rate
- concentration: by increasing concentration, the amount of particles present increases, which increases how often collisions occur; more collisions increase the rate of reaction.
- oxygen: increasing concentration of oxygen increases collision frequencies, which increases reaction rate.
- surface area: greater surface area allows more molecules to collide with each other per unit of time, increasing reaction rate.
- temperature: increasing temperature increases kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance, for this reason particles collide more frequently at higher temperatures; higher temperature results in collisions being able to have enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier and react, resulting in higher reaction rate.
a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction by lowering the activation energy (small hill, particles overcome) required for a reaction to take place at a given temperature, it is there at the beginning (a reactant) and there at the end (a product).
a substance that slows down, or prevents a reaction from happening by raising the activation energy (big hill), or by reacting with a catalyst and destroying it.
exists in a physical state different than that of the reaction it catalyzes.
a catalyst that exists in the same physical state as the reaction that it catalyzes.
expresses the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentration of reactants at a given temperature, it shows that the reaction rate is directly proportional to the molar concentration of the reactant.
defines how the rate is affected by the concentration of that reactant, is shown as the exponents outside of the brackets, the overall reaction order of a chemical reaction is the sum of the orders for the individual reactants in the rate law.
specific rate constant (k)
a numerical value that relates the reaction rate and the concentrations of reactants at a given temperature, it doesn't change with concentration but it does with temperature.
method of initial rates
determines the reaction order by comparing the initial rates of a reaction carried out with varying reactant concentrations, the initial rate measures how fast the reaction proceeds at the moment the reactants are mixed and concentrations are known.
the reaction rate at a specific time.
one that consists of two or more elementary steps.
the steps to getting a complex reaction.
the complete sequence of elementary steps that make up a complex reaction.
a substance that is a reactant first in the elementary steps and then a product, they don't appear in the net chemical equation like catalysts.
rate determining step
the slowest elementary step in a complex reaction (low activation energy, small hill).
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